Register of correspondence experiments on hiring discrimination since 2005


See my chapter in 'Audit Studies: Behind the Scenes with Theory, Method, and Nuance' (edited by S. Michael Gaddis and published by Springer) on the original register for more information concerning its the construction. A discussion paper version of this chapter can be downloaded here.


This register has been thoroughly revised in 2021 with the help of Siel Vermeiren and Louis Lippens.


Links to additional correspondence studies that are written in English, not earlier than 2005, and that focus on hiring discrimination can be sent to Stijn.Baert@UGent.be. Important: these e-mails should also explicitly mention the desired content of columns (1), (2), and (4) below, formatted in the way as the other entries.


(1)

Treatment

(2)

Country of analysis

(3)

Study

(4)

Effect

A. Discrimination ground: Race and national origin

A.1. African American (versus Anglo-Saxon) name

US

Jacquement & Yannelis (2012)

Leasure & Andersen (2020)

0/−

Vuolo et al. (2017)

A.2. African American or Somali American (versus Anglo-Saxon) name

US

Gorsuch & Rho (2018)

A.3. African or Arab (versus native) name

Sweden

Bursell (2007)

A.4. African or Hispanic (versus Anglo-Saxon) name

US

Darolia et al. (2016)

0

Decker et al. (2015)

0

A.5. African or Hispanic (versus native) name

Sweden

Bursell (2014)

A.6. African, Asian, or German (versus native) name

Ireland

McGinnity & Lunn (2011)

A.7. African, Caribbean, Indian, or Pakistani (versus native) name

UK

Wood et al. (2009)

A.8. Albanian (versus native) name

Greece

Drydakis & Vlassis (2010)

Drydakis (2012a)

A.9. Albanian, Chinese, German, Moroccan, or Romanian (versus native) name

Italy

Busetta et al. (2018)

Busetta et al. (2020a)

A.10. Albanian, Georgian, or Ukrainian (versus native) origin

Greece

Drydakis (2017)

A.11. Antillean, Moroccan, Surinamese, or Turkish (versus native) name

Netherlands

Andriessen et al. (2012)

A.12. Arab (versus Anglo-Saxon) name

US

Widner & Chicoine (2011)

A.13. Arab (versus native) name

Netherlands

Blommaert et al. (2014)

Derous et al. (2012)

Sweden

Aldén et al. (2020)

Arai et al. (2015)

A.14. Arab (versus native) origin

France

Manant et al. (2019)

A.15. Armenian or Azeri (versus native) name

Georgia

Asali et al. (2018)

A.16. Asian domestic-born (versus white domestic-born), and Asian domestic-born, white domestic-born, or white foreign-born (versus Asian foreign-born)

US

Lambert & Akinlade (2019)

A.17. Asian- or black-sounding (versus Anglo-Saxon) name

US

Kang et al. (2016)

A.18. Asian or Roma (versus native) name

Czech Republic

Bartoš et al. (2016)

A.19. Asian-, Black-, or Hispanic-sounding (versus Anglo-Saxon) name

US

Yemane (2020)

A.20. Black- or Hispanic-sounding (versus Anglo-Saxon) name

US

Boyd-Swan & Herbst (2019)

A.21. Black-sounding (versus Anglo-Saxon or Hispanic-sounding) name

US

Mobasseri (2019)

A.22. Black-sounding (versus Anglo-Saxon) name

US

Agan & Starr (2016)

Flake (2019)

Gaddis (2015)

Nunley et al. (2015)

A.23. Bosnian, Italian, Polish, Russian, Turkish, or other non-native (versus native) name

Germany

Koopmans et al. (2019)

A.24. Chinese (versus Anglo-Saxon) name

Australia

Chowdhury et al. (2020)

A.25. Chinese, Greek, Indian, or Pakistani (versus Anglo-Saxon) name

US

Oreopoulos (2011)

A.26. Chinese, Indigenous, Italian, or Middle Eastern (versus native) name

Australia

Booth et al. (2012)

A.27. Chinese, Nigerian, Serbian, or Turkish (versus native) name and appearance

Austria

Weichselbaumer (2019)

A.28. Congolese, Moroccan, Italian, or Turkish (versus native) name

Belgium

Capéau et al. (2012)

A.29. Cuban, Dominican, Ecuadorian, Mexican, Puerto Rican, or Salvadorian (versus Anglo-Saxon or native) name

Spain & US (cross-national experiment)

Yemane & Fernández-Reino (2021)

0/−

A.30. Dark (versus fair) skin

Brazil

Dias (2020)

0/−

Pakistan

Saeed et al. (2019)

A.31. Eastern-sounding (versus native) name

Netherlands

Van den Berg et al. (2020)

A.32. English, Iraqi, Russian, or Somali (versus native) name

Finland

Ahmad (2020)

A.33. Foreign-born (versus domestic-born), and Middle Eastern or African (versus European) origin

Germany, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, & UK (cross-national experiment)

Veit & Thijssen (2021)

A.34. German, Kosovar, or Turkish (versus native) name

Switzerland

Zschirnt (2020)

A.35. Ghanaian, Moroccan, Slovakian, or Turkish (versus native) name

Belgium

Baert et al. (2017)

A.36. Hispanic-sounding (versus Anglo-Saxon) name

US

Flake (2019)

+

A.37. Hui or Uyghur Muslim (versus Han Chinese) name

China

Hou et al. (2020)

A.38. Indigenous (versus native) origin

US

Button & Walker (2020)

A.39. Indigenous or mixed-race (versus fair) skin

Mexico

Arceo-Gomez & Campos-Vazques (2014)

A.40. Indigenous-sounding (versus Anglo-Saxon) name

Peru

Galarza & Yamada (2014)

Galarza & Yamada (2017)

A.41. Kurdish (versus native) name

Turkey

Balkan & Cilasun (2018b)

A.42. Malaysian (versus Chinese) name

Malaysia

Lee & Khalid (2016)

A.43. Middle Eastern (versus native) name

Denmark

Dahl & Krog (2018)

Guul et al. (2019)

Villadsen & Wulff (2018)

Sweden

Agerström et al. (2012)

Attström (2007)

Carlsson & Eriksson (2016)

Carlsson & Rooth (2007)

Carlsson & Rooth (2012)

Carlsson (2010)

A.44. Mongolian, Tibetan, or Uighur (versus native) name

China

Maurer-Fazio (2013)

A.45. Moroccan (versus native) name

France

Berson (2012)

Duguet et al. (2010)

Pierné (2013)

Netherlands & Spain (cross-national experiment)

Ramos et al. (2021)

A.46. Muslim or Pakistani (versus native) name

Norway

Birkelund et al. (2017)

A.47. North African (versus native) name

France

Cahuc et al. (2019)

Cediey & Foroni (2008)

Edo et al. (2013)

A.48. Pakistani (versus native) name

Norway

Birkelund et al. (2017)

Birkelund et al. (2018)

Midtbøen (2013)

Midtbøen (2016)

Norway & UK (cross-national experiment)

Larsen & Di Stasio (2021)

A.49. Southern non-European (versus European) origin

Russia

Bessudnov & Shcherbak (2020)

A.50. Turkish (versus native) name

Belgium

Baert & Vujić (2016)

Baert et al. (2015)

Germany

Kaas & Manger (2012)

Germany & Netherlands (cross-national experiment)

Thijssen et al. (2021)

A.51. Ukrainian or Vietnamese (versus native) name

Poland

Wysienska-Di Carlo & Karpinski (2014)

B. Discrimination ground: Gender and motherhood

B.1. Being a mother (versus a childless woman)

Sweden

Bygren et al. (2017)

0

US

Correll et al. (2007)

B.2. Being a mother (versus a father)

Germany

Hipp (2020)

Spain

Gonzalez et al. (2019)

Sweden

Bygren et al. (2017)

0

B.3. Being a mother with older children (versus a mother with younger children)

Austria, Germany, & Switzerland (cross-national experiment)

Becker et al. (2019)

+

B.4. Being pregnant (versus revealing no pregnancy)

Belgium

Capéau et al. (2012)

B.5. Female (versus male) gender

Algeria

Benhabib & Adair (2017)

+

Australia

Booth & Leigh (2010)

+

Belgium

Baert (2015b)

0

Baert et al. (2016a)

0

Capéau et al. (2012)

0

China

Zhou et al. (2013)

+

France

Berson (2012)

+

Duguet et al. (2010)

Duguet et al. (2017)

Petit (2007)

Valfort (2020)

+

Georgia

Asali et al. (2018)

0

Italy

Busetta et al. (2018)

Peru

Galarza & Yamada (2017)

Russia

Mavlikeeva & Asanov (2020)

+

Spain

Albert et al. (2011)

0

Gonzalez et al. (2019)

Yemane & Fernández-Reino (2021)

Sweden

Brandén et al. (2018)

Bygren et al. (2017)

0

Carlsson & Eriksson (2017)

0

Carlsson (2011)

0

Carlsson et al. (2014)

0

Erlandsson (2019)

Turkey

Balkan & Cilasun (2018a)

0

UK

Jackson (2009)

+

Riach & Rich (2006)

US

Rivera & Tilcsik (2016)

0

Yemane & Fernández-Reino (2021)

+

B.6. Female gender with feminine personality traits (versus female gender with masculine personality traits)

UK

Drydakis et al. (2018)

B.7. Transgender (versus cisgender)

Germany

Gerhards et al. (2020)

0

Sweden

Granberg et al. (2020)

C. Discrimination ground: Religion

C.1. Buddhist or Hindu (versus no religious affiliation)

US

Yemane (2020)

0

C.2. Evangelical, Jehovah’s Witness, or Pentecostal (versus majority religion)

Greece

Drydakis (2010b)

C.3. Expressing a religious identity (versus no religious identity)

US

Wright et al. (2013)

C.4. Muslim (versus majority religion)

France

Adida et al. (2010)

Pierné (2013)

Valfort (2020)

Germany, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, & UK (cross-national experiment)

Di Stasio et al. (2021)

India

Banerjee et al. (2009)

0

Netherlands & UK (cross-national experiment)

Abubaker & Bagley (2017)

US

Acquisti & Fong (2020)

0/−

C.5. Muslim (versus no religious affiliation)

US

Yemane (2020)

C.6. Muslim (versus other or no religious affiliation)

Germany

Koopmans et al. (2019)

C.7. Wearing a headscarf (versus not wearing a headscarf)

Germany

Weichselbaumer (2016)

D. Discrimination ground: Disability

D.1. Asperger’s Syndrome or spinal cord injury (versus no disability)

US

Ameri et al. (2015)

D.2. Autism, blindness, or deafness (versus no disability)

Belgium

Baert (2016)

D.3. Being obese (versus not obese)

Italy

Busetta et al. (2020b)

Mexico

Campos-Vazquez & Gonzalez (2020)

0/−

Sweden

Agerström & Rooth (2011)

Rooth (2009)

D.4. Disclosing a former depression (versus no depression)

Belgium

Baert et al. (2016b)

D.5. Disclosing a history of mental illness (versus a physical injury)

US

Hipes et al. (2016)

D.6. Disclosing HIV infection (versus no HIV infection)

Greece

Drydakis (2010a)

D.7. Unspecified physical disability (versus no physical disability)

Belgium

Capéau et al. (2012)

D.8. Wheelchair user (versus no physical disability)

Canada

Bellemare et al. (2019)

UK

Stone & Wright (2013)

E. Discrimination ground: Age

E.1. Age 22-23 or age 60-61 (versus age 33-34 or age 42-43)

US

Farber et al. (2019)

E.2. Age 35, age 47, or age 53 (versus age 23, age 35, or age 47)

Belgium

Capéau et al. (2012)

E.3. Age 36-70 (versus age 35-69)

Sweden

Carlsson & Eriksson (2019)

E.4. Age 38 (versus age 24 or age 28)

Spain

Albert et al. (2011)

E.5. Age 39 or age 47 (versus age 21 or age 27)

UK

Riach (2015)

E.6. Age 46 (versus age 31)

Sweden

Ahmed et al. (2012)

E.7. Age 49-51 or age 64-66 (versus age 29-31)

US

Neumark et al. (2019)

E.8. Age 50 (versus age 28)

UK

Drydakis (2017)

Drydakis et al. (2017)

E.9. Age 50 or age 44 (versus age 44 or age 38)

Belgium

Baert et al. (2016c)

E.10. Age 50 or age 51 (versus age 24 or age 25)

UK

Tinsley (2012)

E.11. Age 50, age 55, or age 62 (versus age 35 or age 45)

US

Lahey (2008)

E.12. Age 56 (versus age 29)

France

Challe et al. (2015)

E.13. Age 57 (versus age 47)

Germany, France, & Spain (cross-national experiment)

Riach (2015)

E.14. Age 57 or age 58 (versus age 37 or age 42)

US

Farber et al. (2016)

E.15. Age 64, age 65, or age 66 (versus age 29, age 30, or age 31)

US

Neumark et al. (2016)

F. Discrimination ground: Military service or affiliation

F.1. Current membership in the Reserves (versus previous membership in the Reserves)

US

Figinski (2017)

F.2. Military service (versus no military service)

Belgium

Baert & Balcaen (2013)

0

US

Figinski (2019)

+

Kleykamp (2009)

+

G. Discrimination ground: Wealth

G.1. Lower-class (versus higher-class) background

Jamaica

Spencer et al. (2019)

US

Rivera & Tilcsik (2016)

0/−

Thomas (2018)

0

G.2. Non-upper-caste (versus upper-caste)

India

Banerjee et al. (2009)

0

Siddique (2011)

G.3. Residence in neighbourhood with bad (versus good) reputation

Sweden

Carlsson et al. (2018)

0

G.4. Residence in neighbourhood with poor (versus bland) reputation

France

Bunel et al. (2016)

UK

Tunstall et al. (2014)

0

H. Discrimination ground: Genetic information

No related correspondence experiments found.

I. Discrimination ground: Citizenship status

No related correspondence experiments found.

J. Discrimination ground: Marital status

J.1. Being married (versus not married)

China

Horvath (2020)

0

Mexico

Arceo-Gomez & Campos-Vazques (2014)

0

J.2. Being married and childless (versus single and childless)

Austria, Germany, & Switzerland (cross-national experiment)

Becker et al. (2019)

K. Discrimination ground: Sexual orientation

K.1. LGBT organisation affiliation (versus no affiliation)

Cyprus

Drydakis (2014)

Germany

Weichselbaumer (2015)

Greece

Drydakis (2009)

Drydakis (2011)

Italy

Patacchini et al. (2015)

0

Sweden

Ahmed et al. (2013)

Bailey et al. (2013)

0

UK

Drydakis (2015)

US

Mishel (2016)

Tilcsik (2011)

K.2. Same-sex (versus opposite sex) marriage partner

Belgium

Baert (2014)

0

K.3. Same-sex (versus opposite sex) orientation

US

Acquisti & Fong (2020)

0

L. Discrimination ground: Political orientation

L.1. Orientation of mentioned youth political organisation

Belgium

Baert et al. (2014)

0

M. Discrimination ground: Union affiliation

M.1. Mention of youth union membership (versus no mention of youth union membership)

Belgium

Baert & Omey (2015)

N. Discrimination ground: Physical appearance

N.1. Facial disfigurement (versus no facial disfigurement) in resume picture

UK

Stone & Wright (2013)

N.2. Having a visible tattoo (versus not having a (visible) tattoo)

Germany

Jibuti (2018)

N.3. Lower attractiveness (versus higher attractiveness) of resume picture

Argentina

Lopez Bóo et al. (2013)

Belgium

Baert (2018)

Baert (2018a)

China

Deng et al. (2020)

Maurer-Fazio & Lei (2015)

Wu (2017)

Israel

Ruffle & Shtudiner (2015)

Italy

Busetta et al. (2021)

Patacchini et al. (2015)

0

Peru

Galarza & Yamada (2017)

Philippines

Beam et al. (2020)

+ (0) ((−)) indicates an overall significantly positive (neutral) ((negative)) effect of the treatment in column (1) on call-back outcomes. Used abbreviations: UK: United Kingdom; US: United States.