You can find many of the resources (program code, raw data, analysis scripts) for our latest projects on OSF. Feel free to contact us if there is anything else that we can help you with!


Zhu, D., Wang, X., Zhao, E., Nozari, N., Notebaert, W., & Braem, S. (submitted). Cognitive control is task specific: Further evidence against the idea of domain-general conflict adaptation. PsyArXiv.

Chai, M., Palenciano, A. F., Mill, R., Cole, M. W., & Braem, S. (submitted). It is hard to prepare for task novelty: Cueing the novelty of upcoming tasks does not facilitate task performance. PsyArXiv.

Kukkonen, N., Braem, S., Allaert, J., Eayrs, J., Prutean, N., Steendam, S. T., Boehler, C.N., Wiersema, J.R., Notebaert, W., & Krebs, R. (submitted). The cost of regulating effort: Reward and difficulty cues with longer prediction horizons have a stronger impact on performance. PsyArXiv.

Vermeylen, L., Braem, S., Ivanchei, I., Desender, K., García-Román, J.M., González-García, C., Ruz, M., & Notebaert, W. (submitted). The Temporal Dynamics of Metacognitive Experiences Track Rational Adaptations in Task Performance. bioRxiv.

Vasta, N., Xu, S., Verguts, T., & Braem, S. (submitted). A shared temporal window of integration across cognitive control and reinforcement learning paradigms: A correlational study. PsyArXiv.

Ivanchei, I., Braem, S., Vermeylen, L., & Notebaert, W. (submitted). Mitigating conflict aversiveness reduces adaptive control in people with low goal motivation. PsyArXiv.

Simoens, J., Verguts, T., & Braem, S. (submitted). Meta-learning environment-specific learning rates. PsyArXiv.

Braem, S., Xu, S., Liefooghe, B., & Abrahamse, E. (submitted). Learning when to learn: Context-specific instruction encoding. PsyArXiv.

in press

Braem, S., Chai, M., Held, L.K., & Xu, S. (in press). One cannot simply 'be flexible': Regulating control parameters requires learning. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences.

Held, L. K., Cracco, E., Bardi, L., Kiraga, M., Cristianelli, E., Brass, M., Abrahamse, E. & Braem, S. (in press). Associative Visuo-motor Learning Using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Induces Stimulus–Response Interference. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience.

Xu, S., Simoens, J., Verguts, T., & Braem, S. (in press). Learning where to be flexible: Using environmental cues to regulate cognitive control. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.


Held, L., Vermeylen, L., Dignath, D., Notebaert, W., Krebs, R., & Braem, S. (2024). Reinforcement learning of adaptive control strategies. Communications Psychology, 2, 8.


Wisniewski, D., Braem, S., González-García, C., De Houwer, J., & Brass, M. (2023). Effects of experiencing CS-US pairings on instructed fear reversal. Journal of Neuroscience.

Braem, S., Held, L., Shenhav, A., Frömer, R. (2023). Learning how to reason and deciding when to decide. Commentary on Advancing Theorizing about Fast-and-Slow Thinking by Wim De Neys. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 46, e115.

Wisniewski, D., Rigoni, D., Vermeylen, L., Braem, S., Abrahamse, E., & Brass, M. (2023). The impact of free will beliefs on implicit learning. Consciousness and Cognition, 107, 103448.


Yang, Q., Xing, J., Braem, S., & Pourtois, G. (2022). The selective use of punishments on congruent versus incongruent trials in the Stroop task. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 193, 107654.

Abrahamse, E., Braem, S., De Houwer, J., & Liefooghe, B. (2022). Tenacious instructions: How to dismantle newly instructed task rules? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 151, 2812-2832.

Vermeylen, L., Braem, S., Notebaert, W., & Ruitenberg, M.F.L. (2022). The subjective evaluation of task switch cues is related to voluntary task switching. Cognition, 224, 105063.

Ross, O., Braem, S., Silvetti, M., & Vassena, E. (2022). Is the juice worth the squeeze? Learning the marginal value of mental effort over time. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 151, 2324-2341.

Goris, J., Braem, S., Van Herck, S., Simoens, J., Deschrijver, E., Wiersema, J.R., Paton, B., Brass, M., & Todd, J. (2022). Reduced primacy bias in autism during early sensory processing. Journal of Neuroscience, 42, 3989-3999.

King, J. A., Braem, S., Korb, F. M., Diekmann, L-S., Roessner, V., Steding, J., & Ehrlich, S. (2022). The impact of punishment on cognitive control in a clinical population characterized by heightened punishment sensitivity. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 131, 131.

Cracco, E., Braem, S., & Brass, M. (2022). Observing conflicting actions elicits conflict adaptation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 151, 493. [PsyArXiv]


Jiménez, L., Méndez, C., Abrahamse, E., &, Braem, S. (2021). It is harder than you think: On the boundary conditions of exploiting congruency cues. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 47, 1686.

Prével, A., Krebs, R., Kukkonen, N., Braem, S. (2021). Selective reinforcement of conflict processing in the Stroop task. PLOS ONE, 16(7): e0255430.

Goris, J., Silvetti, M., Verguts, T., Wiersema, J. R., Brass, M., & Braem, S. (2021). Autistic traits are related to worse performance in a volatile reward learning task despite adaptive learning rates. Autism, 25, 440-451. [PsyArXiv]

Vermeylen, L., Abrahamse, E., Braem, S., & Rigoni, D. (2021). The impact of implicit and explicit suggestions that ‘there is nothing to learn’ on implicit sequence learning. Psychological Research, 85, 1943-1954.

Ivanchei, I., Braem, S., Vermeylen, L., & Notebaert, W. (2021). You will like it in the end. Correct responses alleviate the negative evaluation of conflict. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 74, 1083-1095.

De Souter, L., Braem, S., Genschow, O., Brass, M., & Cracco, E. (2021). Social group membership does not modulate automatic imitation in a contrastive multi-agent paradigm. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 74, 746-759.


Vermeylen, L., Wisniewski, D., González-García, C., Hoofs, V., Notebaert, W., & Braem, S. (2020). Shared Neural Representations of Cognitive Conflict and Negative Affect in the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 40, 8715-8725. [BioRxiv]

Jiménez, L., Abrahamse, E., Méndez, C., &, Braem, S. (2020). Does incidental sequence learning allow us to better manage upcoming conflicting events? Psychological Research, 84, 2079–2089.

Cracco, E., González-García, C., Hussey, I., Braem, S., & Wisniewski, D. (2020). Cultural pressure and biased responding in free will attitudes. Royal Society Open Science, 7: 191824.

Goris, J., Brass, M., Cambier, C., Delplanque, J., Wiersema, J. R., &, Braem, S. (2020). The Relation between Preference for Predictability and Autistic Traits. Autism Research, 13, 1144-1154.

Botvinik-Nezer, R., Holzmeister, F., Camerer, C. F., Dreber, A., Huber, J., Johannesson, M., ... & Schonberg, T. (2020). Variability in the analysis of a single neuroimaging dataset by many teams. Nature, 582, 84-88.


Braem, S., Deltomme, B., & Liefooghe, B. (2019). The instruction-based congruency effect predicts task execution efficiency: Evidence from inter- and intra-individual differences. Memory & Cognition, 47, 1582-1591.

Braem, S., & Hommel, B. (2019). Executive functions are cognitive gadgets. Commentary on Cognitive Gadgets: The Cultural Evolution of Thinking by Cecilia Heyes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 42, e173.

Ruitenberg, M., Braem, S., Du Cheyne, H., & Notebaert, W. (2019). Learning to be in control involves response-specific mechanisms. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 81, 2526-2537.

Braem, S., Bugg, J. M., Schmidt, J. R., Crump, M. J. C., Weissman, D. H., Notebaert, W., & Egner, T. (2019). Measuring adaptive control in conflict tasks. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 23, 769-783.

Asci, O., Braem, S., Park, H., Boehler, C. N. & Krebs, R. (2019). Neural correlates of reward-related response tendencies in an equiprobable Go/NoGo task. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 19, 555-567.

Braem, S., & Trapp, S. (2019). Humans show a higher preference for stimuli that are predictive relative to those that are predictable. Psychological Research, 83, 567-573.

Vermeylen, L., Braem, S., & Notebaert, W. (2019). The affective twitches of task switches: Task switch cues are evaluated as negative. Cognition, 183, 124-130.


Braem, S., & Egner, E. (2018). Getting a grip on cognitive flexibility. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 27, 470-476.

Mertens, G., Braem, S., Kuhn, M., Lonsdorf, T. B., van den Hout, M. A., & Engelhard, I. M. (2018). Does US expectancy mediate the additive effects of CS-US pairings on contingency instructions? Results from subjective, psychophysiological and neural measures. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 8, 41-46.

Goris, J., Braem, S., Nijhof, A., Rigoni, D., Deschrijver, E., Van de Cruys, S., Wiersema, R., & Brass, M. (2018). Sensory prediction errors are less modulated by global context in autism spectrum disorder. Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, 3, 667-674.

Bourguignon, N., Braem, S., Hartstra, E., De Houwer, J., & Brass, M. (2018). Encoding of novel verbal instructions for prospective action in the lateral prefrontal cortex: Evidence from univariate and multivariate fMRI analysis. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 30, 1170-1184.

Liefooghe, B., Braem, S., & Meiran, N. (2018). Editorial: The implications and applications of learning via instructions. Acta Psychologica, 184, 1-3.

Deltomme, B., Mertens, G., Tibboel, H., & , Braem, S. (2018). Instructed fear stimuli bias visual attention. Acta Psychologica, 184, 31-38.


Braem, S., De Houwer, J., Demanet, J., Yuen, K. S. L., Kalisch, R., & Brass, M. (2017). Pattern analyses reveal separate experience-based fear memories in the human right amygdala. Journal of Neuroscience, 37 (34), 8116-8130.

Brass, M., Liefooghe, B., Braem, S., & De Houwer, J. (2017). Following new task instructions: Evidence for a dissociation between knowing and doing. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 81, 16-28.

Braem, S. (2017). Conditioning task switching behavior. Cognition, 166, 272-276.

Goris, J., Deschrijver, E., Trapp, S., Brass, M., & Braem, S. (2017). Autistic traits in the general population do not correlate with a preference for associative information. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 33, 29-38.

Braem, S., Liefooghe, B., De Houwer, J., Brass, M., & Abrahamse, E. (2017). There are limits to the effects of task instructions: Making the automatic effects of task instructions context-specific takes practice. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 43, 394-403.

Braem, S., King, J. A., Korb, F. M., Krebs, R. M., Notebaert, W., & Egner, T. (2017). The role of anterior cingulate cortex in the affective evaluation of conflict. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 29, 137-149.


Bundt., C., Abrahamse, E., Braem, S., Brass, M., & Notebaert, W. (2016). Reward anticipation modulates primary motor cortex excitability during task preparation. NeuroImage, 142, 483–488.

Abrahamse, E., Braem, S., Notebaert, W., & Verguts, T. (2016). Grounding cognitive control in associative learning. Psychological Bulletin, 142, 693-728.

Notebaert, W., & Braem, S. (2016). Parsing the effect of reward on cognitive control. In T. Braver (Editor) Motivation and Cognitive Control. Taylor & Francis.

Rigoni, D., Braem, S., Pourtois, G., & Brass, M. (2016). Fake feedback on pain tolerance impacts proactive versus reactive control strategies. Consciousness & Cognition, 42, 366-373.

Van der Borght, L., Braem, S., Stevens, M., & Notebaert, W. (2016). Keep calm and be patient: the influence of anxiety and time on post-error adaptations. Acta Psychologica, 164, 34-38.


Braem, S.*, Coenen, E.*, Bombeke, K., van Bochove, M., Notebaert, W. (2015). Open your eyes for prediction errors. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 15, 374-380. *both authors contributed equally

Abrahamse, E., & Braem, S. (2015). Experience a conflict - either consciously or not (commentary on Desender, Van Opstal, and Van den Bussche, 2014). Frontiers in Cognition, 6: 179.

Braem, S., Supply, S., Roels, S., & Notebaert, W. (2015). Irrelevant location information influences accuracy in bowling. Motor Control, 19, 25 – 33.

Schouppe, N.*, Braem, S.*, De Houwer, J., Silvetti, M., Verguts, T., Ridderinkhof, K. R., & Notebaert, W. (2015). No pain, no gain: The affective valence of congruency conditions changes following a successful response. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 15, 251-261. *both authors contributed equally


Duthoo, W., Abrahamse, E.L., Braem, S., Boehler, C. N., & Notebaert, W. (2014). The congruency sequence effect 3.0: A critical test of conflict adaptation. PLOS ONE, 9, e110462.

Van der Borght, L., Braem, S., & Notebaert, W. (2014). Disentangling posterror and postconflict reduction of interference. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 1530-1536.

Braem, S., Hickey, C., Duthoo, W., & Notebaert, W. (2014). Reward determines the context-sensitivity of cognitive control. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 44, 1769-1778.

Braem, S., Abrahamse, E.L., Duthoo, W., & Notebaert, W. (2014). What determines the specificity of conflict adaptation: A review, critical analysis, and proposed synthesis. Frontiers in Cognition, 5: 1134.

Duthoo, W., Abrahamse, E.L., Braem, S., Boehler, C. N., & Notebaert, W. (2014). The heterogeneous world of congruency sequence effects: an update. Frontiers in Cognition, 5: 1001.

Duthoo, W., Abrahamse, E.L., Braem, S., & Notebaert, W. (2014). Going, going, gone? Proactive control prevents the congruency sequence effect from rapid decay. Psychological Research, 78, 483-493.

Schouppe, N., de Ferrerre, E., van Opstal, F., Braem. S., & Notebaert, W. (2014). Conscious and unconscious context-specific cognitive control. Frontiers in Cognition, 5, 539.


Braem, S., King, J. A., Korb, F. M., Krebs, R. M., Notebaert, W., & Egner, T. (2013). Affective modulation of cognitive control is determined by performance-contingency and mediated by cingulate and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 33 (43), 16961-16970.

Braem, S., Duthoo, W., & Notebaert, W. (2013). Punishment sensitivity predicts the impact of punishment on cognitive control. PLOS ONE, 8, e74106.

Duthoo, W., Braem, S., Houtman, F., Schouppe, S., Santens, P., & Notebaert, W. (2013). Dopaminergic medication counteracts conflict adaptation in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychology, 27, 556-561.


Braem, S., Verguts, T., Roggeman, C. & Notebaert, W. (2012). Reward modulates adaptations to conflict. Cognition, 125, 324-332.


Braem, S., Verguts, T. & Notebaert, W. (2011). Conflict adaptation by means of associative learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 37, 1662-1666.

Schroyens, W. & Braem, S. (2011). The initial representation in reasoning towards an interpretation of conditional sentences. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64, 339-362.