The Historical Integration Index

Worldwide estimates of the level of trade integration from 1870 to 2010

Plot of the Historical Integration Network in 1900.
Source: Standaert, Ronse and Vandermarliere, 2016

Download data set and plots of the network over time.

Click here for csv file containing historical trade index from 1870-2010. This file contains the following variables:
  • id: a numerical id unique to each country-pair
  • sender: the iso code of the sender country, i.e. the country of origin;
  • target: the iso code of the target country, i.e. the destination country;
  • year;
  • hti: the hti index values, rescaled such that they are are strictly greater than zero;
  • stDev: the estimated standard deviation of the hti values (not of the standardized hti values);
  • hti_stand: the standardized hti values, rescaled such that their overall mean is zero and standard deviation is one;
  • edge: indicates whether the country-pair's index values are significant.
To speed up the construct network graphs, the following file contains only the information for countries whose level of integration is significantly different from zero (i.e. edge is one).

A file linking the country names with their iso codes can be found here.

The pdfs containing all yearly plots of the hti network using the circular layout and on the worldmap can be obtained here:
- World map
- Circular layout


Please cite as: Standaert, Samuel, Stijn Ronsse and Benjamin Vandermarliere. "Historical Trade Integration: Globalization and the Distance Puzzle in the Long Twentieth Century." Cliometrica, 10(2), 2016. doi: 10.1007/s11698-015-0130-5.


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Funding provided by the Flemish Fund for Scientific Research (FWO) and the Belgian National Bank.