Hans Matheve, Toon Spanhove, Wout Opdekamp & Maarten Jacobs
Picture by Maarten Jacobs ©
Panama has an astonishing biodiversity spread over a small area. On top of that, the country has some country endemics and regional endemics. Hence, it is an excellent birding destination. Compared to it's neighbouring country Costa Rica, it is still far less known/visited to birders but it seems tis is changing...
Many thanks go out to Isaac Pizarro for arranging the Cerro Pirre part and being an excellent guide! Euclides Campos, Dieter Heylen and Aidan Kelly provided useful information prior to our trip. Guido Berguido and Nando Quiroz helped us finding accomodation in Gamboa and gave us some up-to-date information.
Departure from Brussels Airport + arrival at Tocumen Airport + drive to Torti (2h15'). Night in Hotel Avicar, Torti.
Birding San Francisco NR + Hotel Avicar feeders + drive to Yaviza (2h20'). Night in Yaviza.
Boat to El Real (45') + taxi to Pirre Uno (1h) + hike to Rancho Frio. Night in Rancho Frio Research Station, Cerro Pirre.
Birding Rancho Frio area + hike up to Rancho Plastico. Night camping at Rancho Plastico, Cerro Pirre
Birding Rancho Plastico + hike up to Ridge Camp. Night camping at Ridge Camp, Cerro Pirre.
Full day birding Cerro Pirre ridge. Night camping at Ridge Camp, Cerro Pirre.
Birding Cerro Pirre ridge + hike all the way down to Rancho Frio. Night in Rancho Frio Research Station, Cerro Pirre.
Birding Rancho Frio area + hike to Pirre Uno + taxi To El Real + boat to Arusa (45'). Night in indigenous village.
Birding Arusa area + boat to Yaviza + drive to Torti (2h30') + drive to Nusagandi (1h45'). Night in Garduk Lodge, Nusagandi.
Birding Nusagandi. Night in Garduk Lodge, Nusagandi.
Birding Nusagandi + drive to Cerro Azul (2h). Night in Posada de Ferhise, Cerro Azul.
Birding Cerro Jefe. Night in Cerro Azul.
Birding Cerro Jefe + drive to Gamboa (1h30') + birding Dump ponds. Night at Soberania Field Station, Gamboa.
Birding Pipeline Road. Night at Soberania Field Station, Gamboa.
Birding Pipeline Road + drive to Santa Catalina (5h). Night in Hotel Iguanito, Santa Catalina.
Boat to Coiba Island (1h25') + birding Coiba Island + boat back to Santa Catalina + drive to Las Lajas (2h30'). Night in Casa Berlin, Las Lajas.
Drive to Cerro Colorado (1h) + birding Cerro Colorado + drive back. Night in Casa Berlin, Las Lajas.
Birding Las Lajas area + Cerro Colorado + drive to Panama City (6h). Night in Pacific Dremas Guesthouse, Panama.
Birding Metropolitano Park + Tocumen mudflats + Departure from Tocumen Airport.
Arrival at Brussels Airport.
Notes on the schedule: We gained a bit of time on our initial schedule, so we opted to include Cerro Colorado. This gave already a nice part of Western Panama specialities. If only we had a couple of days more we definitely would have liked to add the Volcan/Fortuna area to our itinerary...
Download kml file with all gps coordinates
Organization / guiding
To visit Cerro Pirre in the province of Darien, one needs permits from SENAFRONT and a guide to accompany you into the park. We got in contact with Isaac Pizarro (firstname.lastname@example.org, (+507) 6245-3606). He is a local tourist guide, living in El Real de Santa Marían, Darien. He speaks very basic English, but is a very skilled bird guide. Overall, we were very pleased with Isaac's services and highly recommend him for the Pirre part. The package included the SENAFRONT permits, 3 porters, accommodation in the Rancho Frio station, food, his guidance, taxi back and forth to Pirre Uno, and a two way boat trip to the Jacamar site. Logistics were not always very smooth, but he surely did his best to make it a great trip!
Initially, our first contact was Euclides Campos (email@example.com, (+507) 6398-9500). He speaks English and responded rapidly. He is an all-round freelance guide for the whole country with good knowledge of all sites and birds. Eventually, it turned out that he wasn't able to take us up to Cerro Pirre...
For the entire period, we rented a car (Hyundai Elantra) from Dollar. It had a conveniently large trunk that fitted all our main luggage. Roads were general in good condition, except for some parts between Meteti and Yaviza (Darien). The roads for both Nusagandi and Cerro Azul are in good condition. The road to Cerro Colorado has been recently renewed and is in excellent condition until the junction towards Llano Tugri from where one starts birding. Hence, no 4WD was needed towards/at the sites we visited.
Accommodation & food
In the cities and at the touristic coastal areas there was a good choice of accommodation. In more remote areas, only few options are available. In Yaviza, Nusagandi and Cerro Azul, there was not really a choice. For Cerro Colorado, we had to drive down all the way back to Las Lajas. For the Cerro Pirre part, we took our own camping gear to be sure of the quality (rain proof). - Torti - Hotel Avicar, firstname.lastname@example.org, (+507) 6746-0051, @ 8.92133278772, -78.3985005319 - Yaviza - Hotel Sobia Kiru, @ 8.15621900372, -77.6927359868 - Cerro Pirre, Rancho Frio Research Station, @ 8.01975659095, -77.7323777787 - Cerro Pirre, camping at Rancho Plastico, @ 7.99801410176, -77.7140383422 - Cerro Pirre, camping at Ridge Camp, @ 7.9892089963, -77.7073700354 - Arusa - camping at indigenous village - Nusagandi - Garduk Lodge, email@example.com, (+507) 6936-0334, @ 9.31014496833, -78.985098972
- Cerro Jefe/Azul - El Nido - firstname.lastname@example.org, (+507) 6247-9078 @ 9.22034201212, -79.4095869642 - Cerro Azul - Posada de Ferhisse, 9.16955396533, -79.4139720406 - Soberania/Gamboa - Soberania Field Station, email@example.com, (+507) 6676-2466, @ 9.11936002783, -79.6968409885 - Santa Catalina (for Coiba) - Hotel Iguanito, +(507) 6549-7464, @ 7.63366618194, -81.2580851186 - Las Lajas (for Cerro Colorado) - Casa Berlin, +(507) 6453-9663, @ 8.23994499631, -81.8695989344 - Panama City - Pacific Dreams Guest House, +(507) 390-3241, @ 9.00925895732, -79.5332074608 Money
The official currency of Panama is the Balboa, and is at par with the US Dollar. These days US Dollar legally circulates in Panama - all notes were US Dollars, coinage was often the Balboa. ATM's were easily found in larger cities, but were sometimes broken or run out of cash. Weather
Panama has a warm and wet, tropical climate. The wet season generally lasts from the end of April till mid-December. In between is the drier season and most birders visit the country this time. Read more at the Climates to Travel website. We encountered neither health problems nor safety problems at all. We often ate out in local restaurants and on the street and barely suffered any travellers' diseases. We only drank bottled water and made sure that we always had enough bottles in the car as the stock declined rapidly due to the hot weather. Along the Pirre trek, we used water purification tablets. We treated the water form the various streams and hed not problems. It did save a lot of carrying efforts! No Visa was required for people from the European Union. Read more at the Embassey of Panama website.
Most plugs encountered were type A (US type), which requires an adapter for the standard European plug and have an 100+V output. Blackouts were encountered only a few times. But it's still best to bring enough rechargeable batteries and a power bank for smartphone, iPod, etc., especially for the Pirre trek. Read more at the Worldstandards website. VISITED SITES
We booked some hotels on beforehand via booking.com, which is similar to Tripadvisor. Airbnb also offers a great choice of accommodation (even in remote areas), but we did not use this service.
This site is conveniently located en route to Yaviza. There are hummingbird feeders. It is close to San Francisco NR.
This is about the only hotel in Yaviza, and rather basic.
At about 100m asl, this is a research station with basic cabins. There are beds and basic toilets/showers, but the nearby stream is a nice bathing spot. Electricity is generated via solar panels but not guaranteed.
At about 600m asl, this is a basic camping spot with some permanent plastic shelters. Water is about 15' hiking down.
At about 1100m asl, this is a very basic camping site at one of the few flat areas on the upper ridge. There is no water nearby.
Isaac suggested camping at this indigenous village where he knows some people. It was a convenient base to go for the jacamar in the morning.
Until recently, most people stayed at the Burbayar Lodge, which is now closed. The Garduk Lodge is nearby and very conveniently located for birding. It is owned by Yari and her parents. Yari speaks English and knows her birds - she can guide you around as well.
The cabins in the garden of the owners are for rent. They are ok, but certainly not luxury. As this seems to be the only place to stay overnight in the gated community, it is by far the easiest place to be based.
Located outside the gated community, this was the closest option to spend the night. Simple cabins with an attached restaurant and swimming pool.
Via Guido Berguido (bird guide) we arranged a room in this house. There were no signs that this was a guesthouse or B&B. This is definitely one of the cheaper options in Gamboa. Rooms were fine and had A/C.
By far the most luxury accomodation of the trip. The be sure to have a room when arriving late in the touristic village of Santa Catalina, we booked this on beforehand.
This seemed to be the closest accomodation to Cerro Colorado. We booked this in the morning via booking.com as we decided to include an extra area in our itinerary. This was a nice B&B, with a slightly funny but very friendly host. Good rooms.
We spontaneously decided to spend the night near Metropolitano Park and just booked a random room via booking.com. It turned out to be a nice guesthouse with decent rooms.
As we were all vegetarians (or sympathizing with vegetarians, for the trip), we mainly ate fried rice with vegetables and egg. During the day, we ate some bread and butter, and some expertly selected fruits (banana, pineapple). Most birdwatchers are taken to the more fancy lodges and restaurants (more expensive)...
We might have been lucky with the weather conditions. We had only little rain on the Pirre trek and general good birding weather during the trip. One afternoon we had quite some rain on the Pipeline Road and on the second day at Cerro Colorado clouds were persistent...
Health and safety
We carried malaria prophylaxis with us, but none of us took it as it turned out there wasn't a high risk. Yellow fever vaccination wasn't obligatory, but rather recommended. The Zika virus is present and we saw people taking action to prevent further outbreak (spraying chemicals). The only solution is mosquito bite prevention during daytime. Read more at the site of Institute of Tropical Medecine.
Below is a list of the sites we birded. There is a great site guide covering the birding sites in Panama by Angehr et.al. "A Bird-Finding Guide to Panama". Observado and eBird were scrutinized thoroughly. More up-to-date logistical information came from various trip reports on www.cloudbirders.com. These were the most useful reports:
San Francisco NR, Torti
On the way to Yaviza, we spent the night in Torti in order to break the long drive. Hotel and restaurant Avicar (8.92133278772, -78.3985005319) is well-known amongst birders for its hummingbird feeders.
The San Francisco Reserve is a privately owned reserve. It is only a few minutes driving Northwards from the Hotel Avicar in Torti. The entrance road is on the West side of the road at 8.96390497684, -78.4580139723 and here you should also pay an entrance fee.
As it was the first day in the neotropics for some of us, we had a nice introduction to Panamanian birds on our first morning. We birded the scrubby area along the entrance track and followed it into the forested hills. At some kind of a small quarry, we didn't seem to find any continuation of the trail. We also explored a side trail (8.95144100301, -78.4671580419) to the left across a stream.
Highlights: Snowy-bellied Hummingbird (on both visits to the Avicar Hotel, we had 2-3 birds at their feeders)
Cerro Pirre (Darien National Park)
The Darien National Park at the border with Colombia was the main birding site for this trip. It comprises forests ranging from lowland to montane rainforest. The region is underdeveloped compared to the rest of Panama and safety was considered questionable by some. Guerrilla and drug/people traffic are around in the remote areas. In the past people flew into the Caña area (GSP) as it was served by Ancon Expeditions. The site has been closed now and inspired by Calderon's report (amongst others) we contacted Isaac Pizarro to arrange a trip for us.
Isaac is a local tourist guide and a keen birder. He took care of all logistical arrangements and permits. He lives in El Real de Santa Maria, but we met him in Yaviza. From there he accompanied us for the entire trek and back to Yaviza. His English is limited to the basics but knows the bird names and has binoculars and a near complete set of bird sounds. The group consisted of the four of us, Isaac and 3 porters. All camping equipment, our (selection of) main luggage and food and water was carried up by these 3 guys. Water was directly taken from the small streams, but always purified with pills. We were packed light in order to do some proper birding while hiking.
From Yaviza, the trip started with a 45 minutes boat ride to the El Real de Santa Maria port (8.11655298807, -77.7266339958). There we transferred to a 4WD taxi and checked in with the local SENAFRONT (police). We left most of our main luggage at Isaac's place and took only the minimum needed. Once set, we drove for about 1 hour to Pirre Uno where the entrance track (8.03882701322, -77.7538940404) starts. We stayed at three different overnight sites:
Rancho Frio Research Station (lowlands, ca 100m asl) 8.01975659095, -77.7323777787. There are basic cabins with bunk beds and basic toilets/showers, but the nearby stream is a nice bathing spot. Electricity is generated via solar panels but not guaranteed. Birding was done along the entrance road, but also along a nearby trail system. A longer one is known as the Antenna trail and held an active Harpy nest at the time of our visit.
Rancho Plastico campsite (mid elevation, ca 600m asl) 7.99801410176, -77.7140383422. It is only a basic camping spot with some permanent plastic shelters. Water is about 15' hiking down. Birding is mostly restricted to the main trail as the slopes of the ridge are fairly steep. One small trail goes down to a stream where Streamcreeper can be found.
Ridge Camp campsite (upper ridge, ca 1100m asl) 7.9892089963, -77.7073700354. This is a very basic camping site at one of the few flat areas on the upper ridge. There is no water nearby. From the campsite the trail continues in both directions on the upper ridge. The ridge itself is fairly level. The montane forest here holds all real Pirre target species.
Highlights: Russet-crowned Quail-Dove (in total 3 seen and a few heard, all on the left trail up the ridge, mainly at 7.99192003906, -77.7052680217), Pirre Hummingbird (3 single birds were seen, all scattered along the upper ridge trail), Stripe-cheeked Woodpecker (only 1 bird seen between Rancho Frio and Plastico, another was heard between Rancho Plastico and the upper ridge), Beautiful Treerunner (after quite some searching we found a pair rather far up the ridge trail at 7.97600003891, -77.7089999802), Varied Solitaire (we saw 2 birds and heard another along the upper ridge trail, first at 7.99164201133, -77.7055739611), Pirre Warbler (3 birds seen and 2 more heard, all along the upper ridge, easiest next to the campsite), Pirre Bush Tanager (in the higher parts frequently groups encountered, up to 30+ on one day), Green-naped Tanager (in total 5 birds found, often in mixed flocks along the upper ridge trail), Viridian Dacnis (frustratingly, only 1 bird seen by one of us in a large mixed flock at 7.99747900106, -77.7147770394), Choco Tinamou (on two occasions two birds heard only, unfortunately, in the area below Rancho Plastico), Violaceous Quail-Dove (a calling bird flew off before we could see it, just above Rancho Plastico), Blue-throated Toucanet (a few sightings - Violet-throated ssp here), Double-banded Greytail (a pair seen in the secondary forest along the entrance road at 8.03415996954, -77.7498520352), Dull-mantled Antbird (2 seen and a few heard between Rancho Frio and Plastico), Black-crowned Antpitt (1 seen and 2 more heard, all in the Rancho Plastico area), Blue Cotinga (more than 10 birds observed in total, along the river and during the trek), Russet-winged Schiffornis (1 heard when walking in and one seen on the way out along the entrance trail 8.0216768, -77.7408253), Ochraceous Wren (only 3 seen along the ridge trails), Black-and-yellow Tanager (daily small numbers), Harpy Eagle (one adult bird at the nest), Scarlet-browed Tanager (at least 5 birds seen on a few occassions), Black-tipped Cotinga (2 birds seen from the mirador at 8.01320403814, -77.7229529992).
Dusky-backed Jacamar is a range restricted species, only occurring in Colombia and Panama, with most records coming from the latter country. On beforehand we asked Isaac to explicitly include a site for the Jacamar in our schedule. There seem to be 2 well-known sites, both next to a river. It took quite a while before the SENAFRONT checkpoint allowed us to continue by boat towards Arusa (upstream Rio Tuira)...
From the small village it was a short hike to an old and overgrown oxbow lake. It is actually next to the same river somewhat further upstream. The Jacamar stake-out (undisclosed site upon request from Isaac) delivered what we needed, but nothing else noteworthy. According to Isaac, in March-April it should be possible to just drive there with a 4WD.
Highlights: Dusky-backed Jacamar (it took some time to find, eventually we heard 1 bird calling distantly and soon had great views of a pair, perched high up in some trees), Black Oropendola (several groups seen along the rivers, both on the way to El Real as to the jacamar site, more than 20 birds in total)
This area is part of the homeland of Kuna Indians. They have declared a large area as a reserve. The people mainly live on coral islands off the coast, but use the forested hills for hunting and gathering. We stayed at the very friendly Garduk Lodge, hosted by Yari and her parents (9.31014496833, -78.985098972). This is still in the public part.
The turnoff to Nusagandi is at 9.22390239313, -78.9657133911. From here the road is perfectly paved and free to access until you hit the checkpoint at (9.34220298193, -78.9935009927).
We mainly birded the Ibe Igar trail at KM16 marker 9.3195050396, -78.9992499724 and on the first morning the KM17 trail at 9.32810001075, -78.9982749894 as we took the wrong trail on the first day). On several occasions we waded in and followed the streams.
Further along the road, there is a short side track (9.34150803834, -78.9940449782) just before checkpoint, that takes you to the Igar Wedar and Igar Nusagandi trails as described in the site guide. The junction of these two trails is at (9.34739036824, -78.9975144303). At the checkpoint, a steep entrance fee has to be paid, allowing you to bird along the trail system.
Highlights: Speckled Antshrike (one bird was heard along the Ibe Igar trail and was frustratingly glimpsed briefly only), Olive-backed Quail-Dove (2 singles and a group of 3 birds were seen along the Ibe Igar and the KM17 trail), Dull-mantled Antbird (at least two birds seen at an antswarm along the Ibe Igar trail), Black-crowned Antpitta (2 singles birds seen), Tawny-capped Euphonia (4), Sulphur-rumped Tanager (2 birds in a mixed flock were surprisingly the only 2 for the trip), Black-and-yellow Tanager (10+), Carmiol's Tanager (daily good numbers)
Cerro Jefe / Cerro Azul
At 1 hour driving east of Panama City, an upscale gated community is the access point for exploring this mountain range. Most houses here are weekend homes for the City residents or homes of ex-pats. It can be accessed as a day trip from Panama City, but you better have a permit to access on beforehand in order to bird the area early enough. As we arrived too late for arrangements on the first night, we were not allowed inside and stayed in the lower situated Posada de Ferhisse (9.16955396533, -79.4139720406). The second night we stayed at El Nido 9.22034201212, -79.4095869642 which is located inside. This allowed us the next morning to bird freely. Several more options for renting entire homes and apartments seem to be available via Airbnb.
The turnoff towards Cerro Azul is at 9.11343824214, -79.3540599806. From there the paved road goes uphill. Just before the police office, take the turnoff to gated community of Los Altos de Cerro Azul at 9.19397342768, -79.4006794937. The office where you should pay an entrance fee is further along the road at 9.21549903229, -79.4088490214.
We parked our car at the gate towards the Cerro Jefe protected area (9.23217499629, -79.4073940068) and started birding from there. The unpaved track continues for about 1 km where it forms a T junction. Left goes to the Xenornis trail which starts after another 1 km at 9.23742097802, -79.4123339653. Right goes to a mirador and some radio antennas further along the track. The Vistamares trail starts at 9.2386729829, -79.4024930242. We birded both trails as well as the more open area along the main track.
Some residents put hummingbird feeders. As people seem to come and go, the spots where active feeders can be found changes as well. By asking around we found a house with several feeders at 9.20963304117, -79.3953389861. The people were very friendly and let us enjoy the birds in their front garden.
Highlights: Violet-capped Hummingbird (at least 4 birds seen over two days, all of them along the Vistamares trail), Tacarcuna Bush Tanager (despite much effort, only 1 bird found in the scrubby forest at 9.24088496715, -79.4017620385), Black-eared Wood Quail (we taped in 2 birds along the Vistamares Trail at 9.24699998461, -79.4020000007, another 2 were heard in the same area), Snowy-bellied Hummingbird (5+ birds seen mainly at the private feeders), Black-crowned Antpitta (2 birds along the Xenornis trail), Tawny-capped Euphonia (10+), Black-and-yellow Tanager (daily small numbers), Carmiol's Tanager (daily good numbers)
Alongside the southern part of the canal Soberania National Park must be one of the most famous birding sites of Panama. It is situated only about 40 minutes from Panama City and can be visited as a day trip. Another option is the renowned Canopy Tower. We found fairly cheap accommodation in Gamboa at the Soberania Field Station.
In the entire area we didn't have many target species, but most of them were searched for along the Pipeline Road. It is a gravel road along a pipeline that crosses the isthmus. It starts just outside Gamboa (9.1207599733, -79.7159649711) near the Ammo Dump Ponds. We drove up to the turnoff to the Discovery Center (9.13364396431, -79.7202199604) and started birding from there. The public area goes until KM 5.9 at Rio Limbo (9.15807897225, -79.7425950319). From there on, the access is restricted to research and conservation. There is no real gate or checkpoint to keep people out.
Along the route we passed by the Ammo Dump Ponds (9.12019696087, -79.711733032) and had some brief birding around the ponds. The guards seem to be well used to the presence of birders with cameras and were very relaxed.
Other well-known sites for birders but not visited by us include Canopy Tower & Plantation Road (9.07768520527, -79.6491743624), Old Gamboa Road (9.05231391178, -79.6415566773) and Summit Park (9.06528417215, -79.6499840639 ).
Highlights: Slaty-backed Forest Falcon (1 bird taped in at the start of the Pipeline Road), Green Shrike-Vireo (several seen and regularly heard)
Coiba Island used to be a penal colony in the past. Nowadays the entire island, including small satellite islets and the surrounding waters, are entirely protected as a National Park and is declared as an UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is a popular place for diving, snorkelling and whale/dolphin watching. To get there, one needs a permit and a boat. We contacted Javier Elizondo from Birding Coiba who arranged the whole package for us. We did it as a day trip from Santa Catalina, but one can also spend the night in cabins on the island. The trip can be combined with snorkelling, if preferred above seeking the complete set of endemic subspecies...
The 1.5 hour boat trip was smooth but birdwise very calm. Others have seen pelagic birds on this trip, but we probably were in the low season. The way back was as smooth and despite passing by some small bird islets, nothing special was seen...
We landed right at the start of the trail to the Pozo Termales (Hot Springs) at 7.43736301549, -81.7263719905. The trail isn't too long but offered good birding.
We needed to pay a visit to the Coiba headquarters (and cabins) to register and pay the entrance fee (actually included in Javier's price) at 7.62659696862, -81.7288330011. We did only a little bit of birding here as well without much result. There are potentially interesting trails leaving there as well.
Highlights: Azuero Dove (3 individual birds were seen along the hot springs trail), Coiba Spinetail (easily found along the hot springs trail, singles or in groups, up to 7 birds in total), Snowy-bellied Hummingbird (5+ birds seen along the hot spring trail), on top of that we got about 20 endemic subspecies!
Las Lajas area
Before driving up Cerro Colorado again, we had a quick early morning visit to the coastal scrub and mangroves at Las Lajas. Our main aim was to find Veraguan Mango. It took a bit more time than expected but eventually we saw several within the village (8.16864341497, -81.8635436799).
The mudflat/lagoon (8.17375402898, -81.8652850203) on the way was scanned to top up our bird list. No real specialities here - we could not locate any Black-hooded Antshrike despite our efforts as all responding birds were Fasciateds...
Highlights: Veraguan Mango (after some searching we found 4 birds, see above)
We gained a bit of time and decided to include this birding site in our schedule. The entire area is an indigenous homeland for the Ngobe-Bugle Comarca. There is no accommodation, but the road has been upgraded and it takes only about 1 hour driving with a regular car from the coastal touristic village of Las Lajas. To drive up, just follow the main road through San Felix and continue.
We first drove unitil the end of the tarmac road and junction to Llano Tugri at 8.51090996526, -81.7878529988. From there we birded along the unpaved road towards Hato Ramon for quite some kilometers. We did not explore the forest along the paved road to Llano Tugri.
The second day was spend in the vicinity of the antenna (8.49415403791, -81.770660961). From there we birded at several roadside stops downwards, focussing on hummingbirds. Despite much effort we only found Scintilliant...
Highlights: Yellow-green Finch (it took some time to find these, we had a pair at 8.53428298607, -81.8072089925, and singles at 8.52851196192, -81.7984010372 and near the antenna - see above), Black Guan (2 birds at the start of the track 8.51094600745, -81.7909470107 were an unexpected bonus), White-tailed Emerald (along the track to Hato Ramon, we found 3 birds foraging on the roadside flowers), Black-bellied Hummingbird (a single bird along the same track), Purple-throated Mountaingem (good numbers seen along the track to Hato Ramon, almost up to 20 sightings over the 2 days), Scintillant Hummingbird (a nice male and a female of which the id is not 100% sure seen along the main road, male at 8.48101599142, -81.7680430412), Prong-billed Barbet (up to 5 birds seen along the track to Hato Ramon), Blue-throated Toucanet (a few sightings - Blue-throated ssp here), Buffy Tuftedcheek (2 birds seen, both in mixed flock along the Hato Ramon track), Silvery-fronted Tapaculo (up to 4 birds seen and regularly heard, all over the area), Isthmian Wren (a pair seen along the main road at 8.48805301823, -81.7658800073), Ochraceous Wren (small numbers), Black-faced Solitaire (4 birds seen), Tawny-capped Euphonia (5+), Golden-browed Chlorophonia (a single bird only at 8.51576400921, -81.7924399953), Flame-throated Warbler (a single bird in a mixed flock near the antenna was a nice bonus! gps see above), Black-cheeked Warbler (2 single birds), Collared Whitestart (good numbers), Sooty-capped Bush Tanager (only one single bird in a mixed flock encountered), Spangle-cheeked Tanager (5+, often in mixed flocks), Slaty Flowerpiercer (daily small numbers)
Metropolitano Park, Panama City
Located within the boundaries of Panama City, this park is very easy to access and offers good birding for drier and second growth forest. This might be the easiest spot to connect with the Panamanian Tyrannulet, which we missed so far on the trip. From our hotel it was only a couple of minutes driving to the main entrance and ticket office (8.98517003283, -79.5467500202.
We birded the open area near the office and followed the trail system towards the mirador.
Highlights: Panamanian Tyrannulet (we missed this species in other areas, but found fairly easily near the plantation farm at 8.98899603635, -79.5450550318), Snowy-bellied Hummingbird (2 birds), Green Shrike-Vireo (several heard)
We were packed and ready to go to the airport for our return flight but had some spare time. Some people visit the Tocumen marsh, but we decided just to scan the mudflats at the Costa del Este sector of Panamy City (almost Tocumen). The mudflats can be checked from the boulevard at 9.00940181804, -79.4685020894.
Torti - Hotel Avicar, firstname.lastname@example.org, (+507) 6746-0051, @ 8.92133278772, -78.3985005319
Yaviza - Hotel Sobia Kiru, @ 8.15621900372, -77.6927359868
Cerro Pirre, Rancho Frio Research Station, @ 8.01975659095, -77.7323777787
Cerro Pirre, camping at Rancho Plastico, @ 7.99801410176, -77.7140383422
Cerro Pirre, camping at Ridge Camp, @ 7.9892089963, -77.7073700354
Arusa - camping at indigenous village
Nusagandi - Garduk Lodge, email@example.com, (+507) 6936-0334, @ 9.31014496833, -78.985098972
Cerro Jefe/Azul - El Nido - firstname.lastname@example.org, (+507) 6247-9078 @ 9.22034201212, -79.4095869642
Cerro Azul - Posada de Ferhisse, 9.16955396533, -79.4139720406
Soberania/Gamboa - Soberania Field Station, email@example.com, (+507) 6676-2466, @ 9.11936002783, -79.6968409885
Santa Catalina (for Coiba) - Hotel Iguanito, +(507) 6549-7464, @ 7.63366618194, -81.2580851186
Las Lajas (for Cerro Colorado) - Casa Berlin, +(507) 6453-9663, @ 8.23994499631, -81.8695989344
Panama City - Pacific Dreams Guest House, +(507) 390-3241, @ 9.00925895732, -79.5332074608
The official currency of Panama is the Balboa, and is at par with the US Dollar. These days US Dollar legally circulates in Panama - all notes were US Dollars, coinage was often the Balboa. ATM's were easily found in larger cities, but were sometimes broken or run out of cash.
Panama has a warm and wet, tropical climate. The wet season generally lasts from the end of April till mid-December. In between is the drier season and most birders visit the country this time. Read more at the Climates to Travel website.
We encountered neither health problems nor safety problems at all. We often ate out in local restaurants and on the street and barely suffered any travellers' diseases. We only drank bottled water and made sure that we always had enough bottles in the car as the stock declined rapidly due to the hot weather. Along the Pirre trek, we used water purification tablets. We treated the water form the various streams and hed not problems. It did save a lot of carrying efforts!
No Visa was required for people from the European Union. Read more at the Embassey of Panama website.
Most plugs encountered were type A (US type), which requires an adapter for the standard European plug and have an 100+V output. Blackouts were encountered only a few times. But it's still best to bring enough rechargeable batteries and a power bank for smartphone, iPod, etc., especially for the Pirre trek. Read more at the Worldstandards website.
FULL TRIP LIST
Taxonomy strictly follows the IOC checklist version 6.4. The list only contains species positively identified by at least one of our group. Birds identified by guides or other people only are not included, presumed species neither...
A good set of bird records were logged in the field by Toon and can be accessed via observado.org. Mainly records of new species for the trip list were entered...
Little Tinamou Crypturellus soui
Choco Tinamou Crypturellus kerriae Vulnerable (VU)
Black-bellied Whistling Duck Dendrocygna autumnalis
Muscovy Duck Cairina moschata
Blue-winged Teal Anas discors
Grey-headed Chachalaca Ortalis cinereiceps
Crested Guan Penelope purpurascens
Black Guan Chamaepetes unicolor Near-threatened (NT)
Great Curassow Crax rubra Vulnerable (VU)
Marbled Wood Quail Odontophorus gujanensis Near-threatened (NT)
Black-eared Wood Quail Odontophorus melanotis
Tawny-faced Quail Rhynchortyx cinctus
Wood Stork Mycteria americana
American White Ibis Eudocimus albus
Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus
Rufescent Tiger Heron Tigrisoma lineatum
Bare-throated Tiger Heron Tigrisoma mexicanum
Least Bittern Ixobrychus exilis
Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax
Yellow-crowned Night Heron Nyctanassa violacea
Green Heron Butorides virescens
Western Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis
Great Blue Heron Ardea herodias
Cocoi Heron Ardea cocoi
Great Egret Ardea alba
Tricolored Heron Egretta tricolor
Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea
Snowy Egret Egretta thula
Brown Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis
Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens
Brown Booby Sula leucogaster
Neotropic Cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus
Anhinga Anhinga anhinga
Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura
Black Vulture Coragyps atratus
King Vulture Sarcoramphus papa
Western Osprey Pandion haliaetus
White-tailed Kite Elanus leucurus
Pearl Kite Gampsonyx swainsonii
Grey-headed Kite Leptodon cayanensis
Harpy Eagle Harpia harpyja Near-threatened (NT)
Black Hawk-Eagle Spizaetus tyrannus
Tiny Hawk Accipiter superciliosus
Sharp-shinned Hawk Accipiter striatus
Crane Hawk Geranospiza caerulescens
Plumbeous Hawk Cryptoleucopteryx plumbea Vulnerable (VU)
Common Black Hawk Buteogallus anthracinus
Savanna Hawk Buteogallus meridionalis
Great Black Hawk Buteogallus urubitinga
Barred Hawk Morphnarchus princeps
Roadside Hawk Rupornis magnirostris
White Hawk Pseudastur albicollis
Semiplumbeous Hawk Leucopternis semiplumbeus
Grey-lined Hawk Buteo nitidus
Broad-winged Hawk Buteo platypterus
Short-tailed Hawk Buteo brachyurus
Swainson's Hawk Buteo swainsoni
Zone-tailed Hawk Buteo albonotatus
Red-tailed Hawk Buteo jamaicensis
White-throated Crake Laterallus albigularis
Grey-necked Wood Rail Aramides cajaneus
Purple Gallinule Porphyrio martinica
Black-necked Stilt Himantopus mexicanus
Southern Lapwing Vanellus chilensis
Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola
Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus
Killdeer Charadrius vociferus
Northern Jacana Jacana spinosa
Short-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus griseus
Marbled Godwit Limosa fedoa
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus
Long-billed Curlew Numenius americanus
Greater Yellowlegs Tringa melanoleuca
Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes
Solitary Sandpiper Tringa solitaria
Willet Tringa semipalmata
Spotted Sandpiper Actitis macularius
Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres
Sanderling Calidris alba
Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla Near-threatened (NT)
Western Sandpiper Calidris mauri
Least Sandpiper Calidris minutilla
Black Skimmer Rynchops niger
Swallow-tailed Gull Creagrus furcatus
Laughing Gull Leucophaeus atricilla
Franklin's Gull Leucophaeus pipixcan
Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica
Royal Tern Thalasseus maximus
Cabot's Tern Thalasseus acuflavidus
Bridled Tern Onychoprion anaethetus
Scaled Pigeon Patagioenas speciosa
Pale-vented Pigeon Patagioenas cayennensis
Ruddy Pigeon Patagioenas subvinacea Vulnerable (VU)
Short-billed Pigeon Patagioenas nigrirostris
Plain-breasted Ground Dove Columbina minuta
Ruddy Ground Dove Columbina talpacoti
Blue Ground Dove Claravis pretiosa
Ruddy Quail-Dove Geotrygon montana
Violaceous Quail-Dove Geotrygon violacea
Olive-backed Quail-Dove Leptotrygon veraguensis
White-tipped Dove Leptotila verreauxi
Azuero Dove Leptotila battyi Vulnerable (VU) Country endemic
Grey-chested Dove Leptotila cassinii
Russet-crowned Quail-Dove Zentrygon goldmani Near-threatened (NT)
Greater Ani Crotophaga major
Smooth-billed Ani Crotophaga ani
Squirrel Cuckoo Piaya cayana
Mangrove Cuckoo Coccyzus minor
Choco Screech Owl Megascops centralis
Mottled Owl Strix virgata
Crested Owl Lophostrix cristata
Central American Pygmy Owl Glaucidium griseiceps
Common Potoo Nyctibius griseus
Pauraque Nyctidromus albicollis
White-collared Swift Streptoprocne zonaris
Band-rumped Swift Chaetura spinicaudus
Short-tailed Swift Chaetura brachyura
Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift Panyptila cayennensis
Rufous-breasted Hermit Glaucis hirsutus
Band-tailed Barbthroat Threnetes ruckeri
Green Hermit Phaethornis guy
Long-billed Hermit Phaethornis longirostris
Pale-bellied Hermit Phaethornis anthophilus
Stripe-throated Hermit Phaethornis striigularis
Tooth-billed Hummingbird Androdon aequatorialis
Green-fronted Lancebill Doryfera ludovicae
Scaly-breasted Hummingbird Phaeochroa cuvierii
White-necked Jacobin Florisuga mellivora
Lesser Violetear Colibri cyanotus
Black-throated Mango Anthracothorax nigricollis
Veraguan Mango Anthracothorax veraguensis
Violet-headed Hummingbird Klais guimeti
Green Thorntail Discosura conversii
White-tailed Emerald Elvira chionura
Black-bellied Hummingbird Eupherusa nigriventris
Pirre Hummingbird Goethalsia bella Near-threatened (NT)
Violet-capped Hummingbird Goldmania violiceps
Crowned Woodnymph Thalurania colombica
Violet-bellied Hummingbird Juliamyia julie
Sapphire-throated Hummingbird Lepidopyga coeruleogularis
Blue-throated Sapphire Hylocharis eliciae
Rufous-tailed Hummingbird Amazilia tzacatl
Blue-chested Hummingbird Amazilia amabilis
Snowy-bellied Hummingbird Amazilia edward
White-vented Plumeleteer Chalybura buffonii
Bronze-tailed Plumeleteer Chalybura urochrysia
Purple-throated Mountaingem Lampornis calolaemus
Green-crowned Brilliant Heliodoxa jacula
Greenish Puffleg Haplophaedia aureliae
Purple-crowned Fairy Heliothryx barroti
Long-billed Starthroat Heliomaster longirostris
Purple-throated Woodstar Calliphlox mitchellii
Scintillant Hummingbird Selasphorus scintilla
Slaty-tailed Trogon Trogon massena
Black-tailed Trogon Trogon melanurus
White-tailed Trogon Trogon chionurus
Gartered Trogon Trogon caligatus
Black-throated Trogon Trogon rufus
Collared Trogon Trogon collaris
Green Kingfisher Chloroceryle americana
Amazon Kingfisher Chloroceryle amazona
Ringed Kingfisher Megaceryle torquata
Tody Motmot Hylomanes momotula
Lesson's Motmot Momotus lessonii
Whooping Motmot Momotus subrufescens
Rufous Motmot Baryphthengus martii
Broad-billed Motmot Electron platyrhynchum
Dusky-backed Jacamar Brachygalba salmoni
Rufous-tailed Jacamar Galbula ruficauda
Great Jacamar Jacamerops aureus
White-necked Puffbird Notharchus hyperrhynchus
Black-breasted Puffbird Notharchus pectoralis
Pied Puffbird Notharchus tectus
White-whiskered Puffbird Malacoptila panamensis
Grey-cheeked Nunlet Nonnula frontalis
White-fronted Nunbird Monasa morphoeus
Spot-crowned Barbet Capito maculicoronatus
Red-headed Barbet Eubucco bourcierii
Prong-billed Barbet Semnornis frantzii
Blue-throated Toucanet Aulacorhynchus caeruleogularis
Collared Aracari Pteroglossus torquatus
Yellow-eared Toucanet Selenidera spectabilis
Keel-billed Toucan Ramphastos sulfuratus
Yellow-throated Toucan Ramphastos ambiguus Near-threatened (NT)
Black-cheeked Woodpecker Melanerpes pucherani
Red-crowned Woodpecker Melanerpes rubricapillus
Red-rumped Woodpecker Veniliornis kirkii
Hairy Woodpecker Leuconotopicus villosus
Stripe-cheeked Woodpecker Piculus callopterus Country endemic
Cinnamon Woodpecker Celeus loricatus
Lineated Woodpecker Dryocopus lineatus
Crimson-bellied Woodpecker Campephilus haematogaster
Crimson-crested Woodpecker Campephilus melanoleucos
Red-throated Caracara Ibycter americanus
Northern Crested Caracara Caracara cheriway
Yellow-headed Caracara Milvago chimachima
Laughing Falcon Herpetotheres cachinnans
Slaty-backed Forest Falcon Micrastur mirandollei
Collared Forest Falcon Micrastur semitorquatus
American Kestrel Falco sparverius
Merlin Falco columbarius
Bat Falcon Falco rufigularis
Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus
Blue-fronted Parrotlet Touit dilectissimus
Orange-chinned Parakeet Brotogeris jugularis
Brown-hooded Parrot Pyrilia haematotis
Saffron-headed Parrot Pyrilia pyrilia Near-threatened (NT)
Blue-headed Parrot Pionus menstruus
Red-lored Amazon Amazona autumnalis
Southern Mealy Amazon Amazona farinosa Near-threatened (NT)
Spectacled Parrotlet Forpus conspicillatus
Brown-throated Parakeet Eupsittula pertinax
Great Green Macaw Ara ambiguus Endangered (EN)
Scarlet Macaw Ara macao
Red-and-green Macaw Ara chloropterus
Sapayoa Sapayoa aenigma
Pale-breasted Spinetail Synallaxis albescens
Coiba Spinetail Cranioleuca dissita Near-threatened (NT) Country endemic
Red-faced Spinetail Cranioleuca erythrops
Double-banded Greytail Xenerpestes minlosi
Spotted Barbtail Premnoplex brunnescens
Ruddy Treerunner Margarornis rubiginosus
Beautiful Treerunner Margarornis bellulus Near-threatened (NT) Country endemic
Buffy Tuftedcheek Pseudocolaptes lawrencii
Lineated Foliage-gleaner Syndactyla subalaris
Slaty-winged Foliage-gleaner Philydor fuscipenne
Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner Automolus ochrolaemus
Tawny-throated Leaftosser Sclerurus mexicanus
Dusky Leaftosser Sclerurus obscurior
Scaly-throated Leaftosser Sclerurus guatemalensis
Plain Xenops Xenops minutus
Plain-brown Woodcreeper Dendrocincla fuliginosa
Olivaceous Woodcreeper Sittasomus griseicapillus
Wedge-billed Woodcreeper Glyphorynchus spirurus
Northern Barred Woodcreeper Dendrocolaptes sanctithomae
Cocoa Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus susurrans
Black-striped Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus lachrymosus
Spotted Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus erythropygius
Brown-billed Scythebill Campylorhamphus pusillus
Fasciated Antshrike Cymbilaimus lineatus
Great Antshrike Taraba major
Barred Antshrike Thamnophilus doliatus
Black Antshrike Thamnophilus nigriceps
Black-crowned Antshrike Thamnophilus atrinucha
Speckled Antshrike Xenornis setifrons Vulnerable (VU)
Russet Antshrike Thamnistes anabatinus
Plain Antvireo Dysithamnus mentalis
Spot-crowned Antvireo Dysithamnus puncticeps
Checker-throated Antwren Epinecrophylla fulviventris
Moustached Antwren Myrmotherula ignota
White-flanked Antwren Myrmotherula axillaris
Slaty Antwren Myrmotherula schisticolor
Rufous-winged Antwren Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus
Dot-winged Antwren Microrhopias quixensis
Dusky Antbird Cercomacra tyrannina
White-bellied Antbird Myrmeciza longipes
Chestnut-backed Antbird Myrmeciza exsul
Dull-mantled Antbird Myrmeciza laemosticta
Zeledon's Antbird Myrmeciza zeledoni
Wing-banded Antbird Myrmornis torquata
Bicolored Antbird Gymnopithys bicolor
Spotted Antbird Hylophylax naevioides
Ocellated Antbird Phaenostictus mcleannani
Black-faced Antthrush Formicarius analis
Streak-chested Antpitta Hylopezus perspicillatus
Black-crowned Antpitta Pittasoma michleri
Choco Tapaculo Scytalopus chocoensis
Silvery-fronted Tapaculo Scytalopus argentifrons
Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet Tyrannulus elatus
Forest Elaenia Myiopagis gaimardii
Grey Elaenia Myiopagis caniceps
Greenish Elaenia Myiopagis viridicata
Yellow-bellied Elaenia Elaenia flavogaster
Mountain Elaenia Elaenia frantzii
Brown-capped Tyrannulet Ornithion brunneicapillus
Southern Beardless Tyrannulet Camptostoma obsoletum
Mistletoe Tyrannulet Zimmerius parvus
Panamanian Tyrannulet Phylloscartes flavovirens Country endemic
Olive-striped Flycatcher Mionectes olivaceus
Ochre-bellied Flycatcher Mionectes oleagineus
Sepia-capped Flycatcher Leptopogon amaurocephalus
Slaty-capped Flycatcher Leptopogon superciliaris
Northern Scrub Flycatcher Sublegatus arenarum
Black-capped Pygmy Tyrant Myiornis atricapillus
Southern Bentbill Oncostoma olivaceum
Scale-crested Pygmy Tyrant Lophotriccus pileatus
Common Tody-Flycatcher Todirostrum cinereum
Black-headed Tody-Flycatcher Todirostrum nigriceps
Eye-ringed Flatbill Rhynchocyclus brevirostris
Olivaceous Flatbill Rhynchocyclus olivaceus
Yellow-olive Flatbill Tolmomyias sulphurescens
Yellow-margined Flatbill Tolmomyias flavotectus
White-throated Spadebill Platyrinchus mystaceus
Golden-crowned Spadebill Platyrinchus coronatus
Black Phoebe Sayornis nigricans
Northern Tufted Flycatcher Mitrephanes phaeocercus
Tropical Pewee Contopus cinereus
Yellowish Flycatcher Empidonax flavescens
Long-tailed Tyrant Colonia colonus
Rusty-margined Flycatcher Myiozetetes cayanensis
Social Flycatcher Myiozetetes similis
Great Kiskadee Pitangus sulphuratus
Lesser Kiskadee Philohydor lictor
Golden-crowned Flycatcher Myiodynastes chrysocephalus
Streaked Flycatcher Myiodynastes maculatus
Boat-billed Flycatcher Megarynchus pitangua
Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus
Fork-tailed Flycatcher Tyrannus savana
Rufous Mourner Rhytipterna holerythra
Choco Sirystes Sirystes albogriseus
Dusky-capped Flycatcher Myiarchus tuberculifer
Panamanian Flycatcher Myiarchus panamensis
Great Crested Flycatcher Myiarchus crinitus
Bright-rumped Attila Attila spadiceus
Blue Cotinga Cotinga nattererii
Rufous Piha Lipaugus unirufus
Black-tipped Cotinga Carpodectes hopkei
Purple-throated Fruitcrow Querula purpurata
Lance-tailed Manakin Chiroxiphia lanceolata
White-ruffed Manakin Corapipo altera
Green Manakin Cryptopipo holochlora
Blue-crowned Manakin Lepidothrix coronata
Golden-collared Manakin Manacus vitellinus
Red-capped Manakin Ceratopipra mentalis
Golden-headed Manakin Ceratopipra erythrocephala
Sharpbill Oxyruncus cristatus
Northern Royal Flycatcher Onychorhynchus mexicanus
Sulphur-rumped Myiobius Myiobius sulphureipygius
Black-tailed Myiobius Myiobius atricaudus
Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher Terenotriccus erythrurus
Masked Tityra Tityra semifasciata
Northern Schiffornis Schiffornis veraepacis
Russet-winged Schiffornis Schiffornis stenorhyncha
Speckled Mourner Laniocera rufescens
Cinereous Becard Pachyramphus rufus
Cinnamon Becard Pachyramphus cinnamomeus
Rufous-browed Peppershrike Cyclarhis gujanensis
Green Shrike-Vireo Vireolanius pulchellus
Yellow-browed Shrike-Vireo Vireolanius eximius
Yellow-throated Vireo Vireo flavifrons
Philadelphia Vireo Vireo philadelphicus
Yellow-green Vireo Vireo flavoviridis
Golden-fronted Greenlet Hylophilus aurantiifrons
Scrub Greenlet Hylophilus flavipes
Lesser Greenlet Hylophilus decurtatus
Black-chested Jay Cyanocorax affinis
Mangrove Swallow Tachycineta albilinea
Grey-breasted Martin Progne chalybea
Blue-and-white Swallow Notiochelidon cyanoleuca
Southern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx ruficollis
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica
Black-capped Donacobius Donacobius atricapilla
White-headed Wren Campylorhynchus albobrunneus
Bicolored Wren Campylorhynchus griseus
Sooty-headed Wren Pheugopedius spadix
Black-bellied Wren Pheugopedius fasciatoventris
Rufous-breasted Wren Pheugopedius rutilus
Rufous-and-white Wren Thryophilus rufalbus
Isthmian Wren Cantorchilus elutus
Buff-breasted Wren Cantorchilus leucotis
Bay Wren Cantorchilus nigricapillus
House Wren Troglodytes aedon
Ochraceous Wren Troglodytes ochraceus
White-breasted Wood Wren Henicorhina leucosticta
Grey-breasted Wood Wren Henicorhina leucophrys
Southern Nightingale-Wren Microcerculus marginatus
Song Wren Cyphorhinus phaeocephalus
Tawny-faced Gnatwren Microbates cinereiventris
Long-billed Gnatwren Ramphocaenus melanurus
Tropical Gnatcatcher Polioptila plumbea
Slate-throated Gnatcatcher Polioptila schistaceigula
Tropical Mockingbird Mimus gilvus
Black-faced Solitaire Myadestes melanops
Varied Solitaire Myadestes coloratus Country endemic
Slaty-backed Nightingale-Thrush Catharus fuscater
Mountain Thrush Turdus plebejus
Pale-vented Thrush Turdus obsoletus
Clay-colored Thrush Turdus grayi
White-throated Thrush Turdus assimilis
House Sparrow Passer domesticus
Lesser Goldfinch Spinus psaltria
Yellow-crowned Euphonia Euphonia luteicapilla
Thick-billed Euphonia Euphonia laniirostris
Elegant Euphonia Euphonia elegantissima
Fulvous-vented Euphonia Euphonia fulvicrissa
Tawny-capped Euphonia Euphonia anneae
Orange-bellied Euphonia Euphonia xanthogaster
Golden-browed Chlorophonia Chlorophonia callophrys
Northern Waterthrush Parkesia noveboracensis
Golden-winged Warbler Vermivora chrysoptera Near-threatened (NT)
Blue-winged Warbler Vermivora cyanoptera
Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta varia
Prothonotary Warbler Protonotaria citrea
Flame-throated Warbler Oreothlypis gutturalis
Tennessee Warbler Leiothlypis peregrina
Mourning Warbler Geothlypis philadelphia
Kentucky Warbler Geothlypis formosa
Common Yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas
American Redstart Setophaga ruticilla
Tropical Parula Setophaga pitiayumi
Magnolia Warbler Setophaga magnolia
Bay-breasted Warbler Setophaga castanea
Blackburnian Warbler Setophaga fusca
American Yellow Warbler Setophaga aestiva
Chestnut-sided Warbler Setophaga pensylvanica
Black-throated Green Warbler Setophaga virens
Buff-rumped Warbler Myiothlypis fulvicauda
Rufous-capped Warbler Basileuterus rufifrons
Black-cheeked Warbler Basileuterus melanogenys
Pirre Warbler Basileuterus ignotus Vulnerable (VU)
Canada Warbler Cardellina canadensis
Wilson's Warbler Cardellina pusilla
Slate-throated Whitestart Myioborus miniatus
Collared Whitestart Myioborus torquatus
Eastern Meadowlark Sturnella magna
Red-breasted Blackbird Sturnella militaris
Chestnut-headed Oropendola Psarocolius wagleri
Crested Oropendola Psarocolius decumanus
Black Oropendola Psarocolius guatimozinus
Yellow-rumped Cacique Cacicus cela
Scarlet-rumped Cacique Cacicus microrhynchus
Yellow-backed Oriole Icterus chrysater
Baltimore Oriole Icterus galbula
Orchard Oriole Icterus spurius
Great-tailed Grackle Quiscalus mexicanus
Bananaquit Coereba flaveola
Rufous-collared Sparrow Zonotrichia capensis
Black-striped Sparrow Arremonops conirostris
Orange-billed Sparrow Arremon aurantiirostris
Chestnut-capped Brushfinch Arremon brunneinucha
White-naped Brushfinch Atlapetes albinucha
Yellow-green Finch Pselliophorus luteoviridis Vulnerable (VU) Country endemic
Common Bush Tanager Chlorospingus flavopectus
Tacarcuna Bush Tanager Chlorospingus tacarcunae
Pirre Bush Tanager Chlorospingus inornatus Country endemic
Sooty-capped Bush Tanager Chlorospingus pileatus
Dusky-faced Tanager Mitrospingus cassinii
Grey-headed Tanager Eucometis penicillata
White-shouldered Tanager Tachyphonus luctuosus
Tawny-crested Tanager Tachyphonus delatrii
Crimson-collared Tanager Ramphocelus sanguinolentus
Crimson-backed Tanager Ramphocelus dimidiatus
Blue-grey Tanager Thraupis episcopus
Palm Tanager Thraupis palmarum
Plain-colored Tanager Tangara inornata
Grey-and-gold Tanager Tangara palmeri
Emerald Tanager Tangara florida
Silver-throated Tanager Tangara icterocephala
Speckled Tanager Tangara guttata
Bay-headed Tanager Tangara gyrola
Rufous-winged Tanager Tangara lavinia
Golden-hooded Tanager Tangara larvata
Spangle-cheeked Tanager Tangara dowii
Green-naped Tanager Tangara fucosa Near-threatened (NT) Country endemic
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis Dacnis venusta
Blue Dacnis Dacnis cayana
Viridian Dacnis Dacnis viguieri Near-threatened (NT)
Shining Honeycreeper Cyanerpes lucidus
Purple Honeycreeper Cyanerpes caeruleus
Red-legged Honeycreeper Cyanerpes cyaneus
Green Honeycreeper Chlorophanes spiza
Sulphur-rumped Tanager Heterospingus rubrifrons
Scarlet-browed Tanager Heterospingus xanthopygius
Black-and-yellow Tanager Chrysothlypis chrysomelas
Slaty Flowerpiercer Diglossa plumbea
Slate-colored Grosbeak Saltator grossus
Buff-throated Saltator Saltator maximus
Streaked Saltator Saltator striatipectus
Blue-black Grassquit Volatinia jacarina
Variable Seedeater Sporophila corvina
Ruddy-breasted Seedeater Sporophila minuta
Yellow-faced Grassquit Tiaris olivaceus
Rosy Thrush-Tanager Rhodinocichla rosea
Tooth-billed Tanager Piranga lutea
Summer Tanager Piranga rubra
White-winged Tanager Piranga leucoptera
Red-throated Ant Tanager Habia fuscicauda
Carmiol's Tanager Chlorothraupis carmioli
Lemon-spectacled Tanager Chlorothraupis olivacea
Rose-breasted Grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus
Yellow-green Grosbeak Caryothraustes canadensis
Blue-black Grosbeak Cyanocompsa cyanoides