English dictionary of medical terms (37)
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- No:720 - glucose
(Gr. gleukos sweetness; glykys sweet) D-glucose, a monosaccharide
(hexose), C6H12O6, also known as dextrose (q.v.), found in certain
foodstuffs, especially fruits, and in the normal blood of all
animals. It is the end product of carbohydrate metabolism and is
the chief source of energy for living organisms, its utilization
being controlled by insulin. Excess glucose is converted to
glycogen and stored in the liver and muscles for use as needed and,
beyond that, is converted to fat and stored as adipose tissue.
Glucose appears in the urine in diabetes mellitus.
- No:721 - gluten
(L. 'glue') the protein of wheat and other grains which gives to
the dough its tough elastic character.
- No:722 - glycoside
any compound that contains a carbohydrate molecule (sugar),
particularly any such natural product in plants, convertible, by
hydrolytic cleavage, into sugar and a nonsugar component
(aglycone), and named specifically for the sugar contained, as
glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose)
- No:723 - glycosuria
(glyco- + Gr. ouron urine + -ia) the presence of glucose in the
urine; especially the excretion of an abnormally large amount of
sugar (glucose) in the urine, i.e., more than 1 gm. in 24 hours.
- No:724 - gonadal
pertaining to a gonad.
- No:725 - gonadotropic
(gonad + Gr. tropos a turning) stimulating the gonads; applied to
hormones of the anterior pituitary which influence the gonads.
- No:726 - gonioscopy
examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye with
- No:727 - gonorrhoea
(gono- + Gr. rhein to flow) infection due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae
transmitted sexually in most cases, but also by contact with
infected exudates in neonatal children at birth, or by infants in
households with infected inhabitants. It is marked in males by
urethritis with pain and purulent discharge, but is commonly
asymptomatic in females, although it may extend to produce
suppurative salpingitis, oophoritis, tubo-ovarian abscess, and
peritonitis. Bacteraemia occurs in both sexes, resulting in
cutaneous lesions, arthritis, and rarely meningitis or
endocarditis. Formerly called blennorrhagia and blennorrhoea.
- No:728 - gradual
taking place by a series of small changes over a long period; not
- No:729 - gram-negative
losing the stain or decolorized by alcohol in Gram's method of
staining, a primary characteristic of bacteria having a cell wall
composed of a thin layer of peptidoglycan covered by an outer
membrane of lipoprotein and lipopolysaccharide. Cf. gram-
- No:730 - gram-positive
retaining the stain or resisting decolorization by alcohol in
Gram's method of staining, a primary characteristic of bacteria
whose cell wall is composed of a thick layer of peptidologlycan
with attached teichoic acids. Cf. gramnegative.
- No:731 - Grandry's corpuscles
(M. Grandry, Belgian physician of the 19th century) menisci tactus.
- No:732 - granule
(L. granulum) a small pill made from sucrose.
- No:733 - granulocytopenia
(granulocyte + Gr. penia poverty) agranulocytosis.
- No:734 - gravidity
(L. graviditas) pregnancy; the condition of being pregnant, without
regard to the outcome.
- No:735 - gynaecological
pertaining to gynaecology.
- No:736 - gynaecomastia
(gyneco- + Gr. mastos breast) excessive development of the male
mammary glands, even to the functional state.
- No:737 - habitual
of the nature of a habit; according to habit; established by or
repeated by force of habit, customary.
- No:738 - haematemesis
(haemat- + Gr. emesis vomiting) the vomiting of blood.
- No:739 - haematoma
(haemato- + -oma) a localized collection of blood, usually clotted,
in an organ, space, or tissue, due to a break in the wall of a
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