English dictionary of medical terms (23)
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- No:440 - cystitis
inflammation of the urinary bladder.
- No:441 - cystoscopy
direct visual examination of the urinary tract with a cystoscope.
- No:442 - cytochrome
(cyto- + Gr. chroma colour) any electron transfer hemoprotein
having a mode of action in which the transfer of a single electron
is effected by a reversible valence change of the central iron atom
of the heme prosthetic group between the +2 and +3 oxidation
states; classified as cytochromes a in which the heme contains a
formyl side chain, cytochromes b, which contain protoheme or a
closely similar heme that is not covalently bound to the protein,
cytochromes c in which protoheme or other heme is covalently bound
to the protein, and cytochromes d in which the iron-tetrapyrrole
has fewer conjugated double bonds than the hemes have. Well-known
cytochromes have been numbered consecutively within groups and are
designated by subscripts (beginning with no subscript), e.g.
cytochromes c, c1, C2, ... New cytochromes are named according to
the wavelength in nanometres of the absorption maximum of the a-band of the iron (II) form in
pyridine, e.g., c-555.
- No:443 - cytoplasm
(cyto- + Gr. plasma plasm) the protoplasm of a cell exclusive of
that of the nucleus; it consists of a continuous aqueous solution
(cytosol) and the organelles and inclusions suspended in it
(phaneroplasm), and is the site of most of the chemical activities
of the cell.
- No:444 - cytostatic
(cyto- + Gr. statikos bringing to a stand-still) an agent that
suppresses cell growth and multiplication.
- No:445 - cytotoxic
pertaining to or exhibiting cytotoxicity.
- No:446 - decompensation
failure of compensation; cardiac decompensation is marked by
dyspnea, venous engorgement, and edema.
- No:447 - decongestant
an agent that reduces congestion or swelling.
- No:448 - decorum
propriety and good taste especially in conduct, manners, or
- No:449 - decubitus
(L. 'a lying down') an act of lying down; also the position assumed
in lying down.
- No:450 - defaecation
the act or process of defecating, discharge of feces.
- No:451 - defibrillation
the act to arrest the fibrillation of (heart muscle) by applying
electric shock across the chest, thus depolarizing the heart cells
and allowing normal rhythm to return.
- No:452 - deficiency
a lack or defect.
- No:453 - deficit
a lack or deficiency.
- No:454 - degenerative
undergoing degeneration : tending to degenerate; having the
character of or involving degeneration; causing or tending to cause
- No:455 - degradation
the reduction of a chemical compound to one less complex, as by
splitting off one or more groups.
- No:456 - dehydration
(L. de away + Gr. hydor water) the condition that results from
excessive loss of body water. Called also anhydration, deaquation
- No:457 - delirium
(de- + L. lira furrow or track; i.e., 'off the track') (DSM III-R)
an acute, reversible organic mental disorder characterized by
reduced ability to maintain attention to external stimuli and
disorganized thinking as manifested by rambling, irrelevant, or
incoherent speech; there are also a reduced level of consciousness,
sensory misperceptions, disturbance of the sleep-wakefulness cycle
and level of psychomotor activity, disorientation to time, place,
or person, and memory impairment. Delirium may be caused by a
large number of conditions resulting in derangement of cerebral
metabolism, including systemic infection, poisoning, drug
intoxication or withdrawal, seizures or head trauma, and metabolic
disturbances such as hypoxia, hypoglycaemia, fluid, electrolyte, or
acid-base imbalances, or hepatic or renal failure. Called also
acute confusional state and acute brain syndrome.
- No:458 - dementia
(de- + L. mens mind) (DSM III) an organic mental disorder
characterized by a general loss of intellectual abilities involving
impairment of memory, judgment, and abstract thinking as well as
changes in personality. It does not include loss of intellectual
functioning caused by clouding of consciousness (as in delirium)
nor that caused by depression or other functional mental disorder
(pseudodementia). Dementia may be caused by a large number of
conditions, some reversible and some progressive, that cause
widespread cerebral and damage or dysfunction. The most common
cause is Alzheimer's disease; others are cerebrovascular disease
(multi-infarct dementia), central nervous system infection, brain
trauma or tumours, pernicious anaemia, folic acid deficiency,
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, normal-pressure hydrocephalus, and,
neurological diseases such as Huntington's chorea, multiple
sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease.
- No:459 - demulcent
soothing; bland; allaying the irritation of inflamed or abraded
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