English dictionary of medical terms (04)
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- No:60 - alcoholism
a disorder characterized by pathological pattern of alcohol use
that causes a serious impairment in social or occupational
functioning. In DSN III-R this is termed alcohol abuse or, if
tolerance or withdrawal is present, alcohol dependence.
- No:61 - alert
attentive and quick to think or act.
- No:62 - alimentary
pertaining to food or nutritive material, or to the organs of
- No:63 - alkaline
(L. alkalinus) having the reactions of an alkali.
- No:64 - alkaloid
(alkali + -oid) one of a large group of nitrogenous basis
substances found in plants. They are usually very bitter and many
are pharmacologically active. Examples are atropine, caffeine,
coniine, morphine, nicotine, quinine, strychnine. The term is also
applied to synthetic substances (artificial a's) which have
structures similar to plant alkaloids, such as procaine.
- No:65 - alkalosis
a pathologic condition resulting from accumulation of base, or from
loss of acid without comparable loss of base in the body fluids,
and characterized by decrease in hydrogen ion concentration
(increase in pH). Cf. acidosis.
- No:66 - alkylate
to treat with an alkylating agent.
- No:67 - allergen
(allergy + -gen) a antigenic substance capable of producing
immediate-type hypersensitivity (allergy).
- No:68 - allergic
pertaining to, caused by, affected with, or of the nature of
- No:69 - allergy
(Gr. allos other + ergon work) 1. a state of hypersensitivity
induced by exposure to a particular antigen (allergen) resulting in
harmful immunologic reactions on subsequent exposures; the term is
usually used to refer to hypersensitivity to an environmental
antigen (atopic allergy or contact dermatitis) or to drug allergy;
the original meaning, now obsolete, included all states of altered
immunologic reactivity, immunity as well as hypersensitivity. Gell
and Coombs used the term 'allergic reaction' to mean any harmful
immunologic reaction causing tissue injury. 2. the medical
specialty dealing with diagnosis and treatment of allergic
- No:70 - alopecia
(Gr. alpekia a disease in which the hair falls out) baldness;
absence of the hair from skin areas where it normally is present.
- No:71 - alternate
cause to occur or appear one after the other.
- No:72 - alternative
available in place of something else.
- No:73 - alveolitis
inflammation of an alveolus. Called also odontobothritis.
- No:74 - amblyopia
(ambly + -opia) impairment of vision without detectable organic
lesion of the eye.
- No:75 - ambulant
(L. ambulans walking) walking or able to walk.
- No:76 - amenorrhea
(a neg. + Gr. mn month + rhoia flow) absence or abnormal stoppage
of the menses; called also amenia.
- No:77 - amine
an organic compound containing nitrogen; any member of a group of
chemical compounds formed from ammonia by replacement of one or
more of the hydrogen atoms by organic (hydrocarbon) radicals. The
amines are distinguished as primary, secondary, and tertiary,
according to whether one, two, or three hydrogen atoms are
replaced. The amines include allylamine, amylamine, ethylamine,
methylamine, phenylamine, propylamine, and many other compounds.
- No:78 - amino acid
any organic compound containing an amino (-NH2 and a carboxyl (-
COOH) group. The 20 a-amino acids listed in the accompanying table
are the amino acids from which proteins are synthesized by
formation of peptide bonds during ribosomal translation of
messenger RNA; all except glycine, which is not optically active,
have the L configuration. Other amino acids occurring in proteins,
such as hydroxyproline in collagen, are formed by posttranslational
enzymatic modification of amino acids residues in polypeptide
chains. There are also several important amino acids, such as the
neurotransmitter y-aminobutyric acid, that have no relation to
proteins. Abbreviated AA.
- No:79 - amnesia
(Gr. amnsia forgetfulness) lack or loss of memory; inability to
remember past experiences.
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