Faculty of Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
ICP / Food Science and Nutrition
1999 - 2000


Country Presentation
UGANDA
By Andrew Mubiru

1.0. NTRODUCTION
Uganda is located on the eastern region of Africa and lies between latitude 1° 30´ south and Longitude 29° 30´ East ; and occupies an area of about 241,500.km² of which 15.3% is open water ,3% permanent wetlands , and 9.4%seasonal wetlands (see map). Uganda´s perimeter is about 16630 km long. Is boardered by the Republic of Kenya in the east, Tanzania and Rwanda in the south, Democratic Republic of Congo in the west and Sudan in the north.

Most of Uganda forms the interior of plateau of the Africa Continent.It is characterised by flat - topped hills in the central , western and eastern parts of the country. Along the boarders, are Rwenzori mountains and Mufumbira volcanoes in the west and Mt Elgon and Mt Kadam in the east.
 
 

Most of the rivers in the southern part of the country drain in, Lake Victoria. The waters of Lake Victoria then through the owen falls Dam, along Victoria Nile through Lake Kyoga to Lake Albert, the Albert Nile, the White Nile in Sudan down the Mediterranean sea through Egypt. The Lakes in Uganda cover almost one fifth of the country. Lake Victoria is the most dominant and having spectacular scenic contrasts, and is the second largest fresh water Lake in the World. Other Lakes of interest are the crater lakes in the western part of the country, associated with western Rift Valley

(see map).
 
 

The soils of Uganda are defined by anumber of parameters, which include: parent rock, age of soil and climate. The most dominant soil type is the ferralitic soil which account for about two-thirds of the soil found in the country. Basing on studies carried out in the past, Uganda’s soils were divided into six categories according to productivity:

The climate of Uganda is influenced by the inter- TropicalConvergence Zone (ITCZ° and air currents such as the southeast and northeast monsoons.Uganda has five climatic zones, using rainfall received in a given area as the dependable variable.They are: 1.2. Environment And Development

Uganda is primarily an agrian country, with agriculture contributing over 50% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).Agricultural activities are mainly supported by peasant (subsistence) famers. The current Government’s effort is towards modernising agriculture, which entails transforming the Ugandan society from being Agrarian to

Table 1: Uganda Country Data
 Item 

Total Area

Quantity 

241,038sq. Km

Land Area 197,097 Sq. Km
Water & Swamps 43,942 Sq. Km
Altitude 1,000 m.a.s.l
Mean Temp. 210C
Minimum Temp. 12.50C
Maximum Temp. 300C
Annual Rainfall 1380 mm
Population 20.3 million
Pop. growth rate 2.8%
Literacy rate 54%
Official language English
Other languages Swahili, French,Luganda, & Runyakitara

Source: State of the Republic of Environment Report for

The Republic of Uganda, 1996
 
 

industrial.Agricultural output is purely peasant famers who grow both cash and subsistence food crops on their land holdings (average about 1.7 ha per huose hold).
 
 

1.2.1. Minimum requirements for moving towards a sustainable development path

The history of Uganda’s economy illustrates the level of environmental and human quality today is a reflection of past events and activities, which date more than three decades ago. Features of this period includes the following: 1.2.2.Uganda’s Economy

The economy in 1970s suffered internal and external shocks. In 1986 the country set itself to creating "an independent, integrated and self- sustaining economy".To that end it has pursued an economic reform programmed since 1987 intedede to achieve a sustainable economic growth and stabilizes the economy.
 
 

1.2.3. Gross Domestic Product (GDP)per capita

Uganda’s GDP is essentially natural resource based. That is the whole of agriculturalsector (cash and food crops, livestock, fisheries and forestry) is based on using harvesting the natural resources.Uganda’s gross national product (GDP) pe capita in 1996 was US$ 160, and was higher than that of Kenya (US$ 120), Tanzania (US$ 90) and Thailand (US$ 150).In 1996, GDP per capita was estimated at only US$ 220. Thus controlling inflation rate has been a key pre- occupation of Government since 1996.
 
 

Table 2: Uganda’s key economic indicators.
Indicators
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
GDP Growth %
8.4
5.5
10.0
8.5
5.0
Contribution to GDP % 
Agriculture 
51.0
49.0
47.0
45.0
44.7
Manufacturing
6.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
8.6
Inflation rate %
4.1
6.9
3.4
8.0
7.7

Source: Ministry of Finace and Economic Planning
 
 

GDP annual growth rate has been 5-6% on average. Much of this growth resulted from a number of policy reforms, including greater control of inflation, liberalisation of trade and improved investment policies such as guaranteeing investors’ security of property and capital.
 
 

Today Uganda enjoys political stability. A system of democratic governance has been in place since 1986. The last presidential and parliamentary elections were held in 1996 under a new constitution promulgated in 1995.
 
 

The Uganda government has through its privatisation unit, under the Ministry of Finance aggressively embarked on turning over management of state owned corporations to the private sector through outright sale or joint ventures. By December 1997, government had divested from 85% of all public enterprises.Uganda’s central location within the heart of sub-Saharan Africa is strategic for regional trade and investment. It is part of a regional grouping of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) with a combined population of 300 million

.
 
 

1.3.Population and social Development

With a 2.5% growth rate between 1980 and 1991, Uganda’s population grew from 12.6 Million to 16.7 million. In 1996 the population was estimated at 19.8 million. About 89% of the population is still rural, deriving its livehood directly from the natural resources. Eleven percent live in cities, towns and other urban areas. The average density is 85 people per km², but region and district variations exist. Rural settings in Kisoro, Mbale and Kabale have high densties of 301, 284, and 246 people per km² respectively.On the other hand, Moroto, and Kitgum have low densities of 12, 15, and 22, people per km² respectively.
 
 

Table: 3. Population Distribution
 
Year Total No.

(000)

Percent
    Women Men
1959 6450 49.8 50.2 
1969 9535 49.5 50.5
1980 12636 50.5 49.5 
1991 16672 50.9 49.1

Source: 1991 Poulation and Housing cencus Analytical report Vol.1.
 
 

Table 3. Shows that in 1959 and 1969, women constituted slightly lower percentage than men . However the reverse is observed in the census years of 1980and 1991. This reverse trend could be attributed to the civil strife Uganda went through during the two decades preceding the 1991 census, in which more men than women died.
 
 

Source:1991 Population and Housing Census Analytical report

Vol.1

.

1.4. Increased demand for health services

Uganda has set itself to achieving adequate health services for the entire population, through Primary Health Care (PHC) approach. These efforts however, are likely to make difficult by prevailing high fertility, mortality and the recent scourge of AIDS epidemic. Due to these variables, the demand for health sector spending is rising ta a time when when the health infrastructure is still characterised uneven distribution and poor access to facilities, inadequateb services and low per capita expenditure. Expenditure on health care, from both public and private sector, is only US$ 5.64 per capita per year or about 50% of the absolute minimum level of US$ 12 necessary for proper care. According to 1988/89 UDHS results, 500 mothers die

for every 100,000 live birth, which increased to 506 mothers in 1995. This increase could be attributed to AIDS epidermic and increased cost for health services resulting from stractural adjustiment programs.
 
 

Source: State of Environment Report forThe Republic of

Uganda, 1996
 
 

Life expectancy inUganda is among the shortest in Africa.With the current HIV/AIDS

prevarance, life expectancy is projected to drop to 40.7 years by the year 2000(World Bank, 1993).
 
 

1.5. Increased demand for Education Services

Government has set itself to achieve universal education (UPE) by the year 2003. Presently; it has it has commited itself to meet the primary education costs of children per house hold. However the high birth rate and momentum of population growth may hinder the government’s ability to extend the coverage and improve the quality of primary. The primary school age population (aged 6 - 12 years) is expected to grow from 3.3 million in 1991to 7.2 million by the year 2021

.

The national Literacy rate is just at 54% (45% and 64% for females and males, respectively). Social services such as education and health and infrastructure, such as transport and communication systems, are still inadequate.(Literate Person: According to 1991 census, a person who could read and write in any language was defined as literate and therefore an illiterate person is one who could not read and write in any language).
 
 

Table.4 Population Aged 6 years and above by Eucational Attainment percent Distribution(%)
 
Educational

Attainment

Women Men Total
No Education 45.87 28.41 37.38
P1 - P3 20.44 23.95 22.15
P4 -P6 19.98 25.66 22.74
P7 6.70 9.31 7.67
S1 - S3 4.20 6.47 5.30
S4 2.24 4.27 3.23
S5 - S6 0.46 1.52 0.98
University 0.10 0.41 0.25
Total 100 100 100

Source: The 1991 Population and Housing Census

2. AGRICULTURE SECTOR

2.1.Contribution to the Economy

2.2. Agriculture as a back bone of the economy of Uganda includes sectors: 2.3. Agricultural Modernisation

Literally, modernisatio implies changing something so that is suitatable for modern needs. Modernisation also implies adoption modern ways and ideas. In Uganda’s context , modernisation has to be looked at in two perspectives: the shoter and medium term and the long term.
 
 

2.4. The Government identified some essential areas for agricultural modernisation.

These include:

2.5 Agriculture as a means of to Porvety Eradication in Rural Areas

The Government has laid down a number of strategies. These include:

2.6. DAIRY SECTOR
 
 

2.6.1. Economic Policy

Figure 3. Growth in Cattle Population

Source: MAAIF, 1997
 
 

2.6.2. Dairy Sector Policy and Plan 2.6.3. Resources 2.6.4. Performance of the Sector Figure.4. Growth in milk processing

Source: MAAIF, 1993
 
 

2.6.5. Market and Market Potential 2.6.2. Uganda’s Comparative Advantages in the Dairy Sector 2.6.7. Investment Opportunities

Uganda presently produces surplus milk that goes to waste. Only 9% of the milk currently produced in the country is processed. Investment opportunities exists in the following areas:

2.6.8. Investment Incentives 2.6.9. Conclusion

Uganda offers a lot in the dairy sector for potential investors. It is naturally well endowed; has enough milk supply with a big potential to produce more. Immediate opportunity exists in acquiring the soon to be privatised state owned Dairy Corporation and several of its assets in Kampala and up country. With assured market, both internal and external, investors should expect good returns on their investments in dairy production, processing and marketing in Uganda.
 
 
 
 

2.7. THE FOOD AND BEVARAGES SECTOR
 
 

2.7.1. OVERVIEW

The Uganda’s climate is conducive for the production of a wide range of exportable produce. This provides the country with a comparative advantage in farming and processing a wide range of resources for food and beverages. About 75% of Uganda agricultural gross domestic product(GDP) is made up of the food crop production. Only a third of food crop production is offered to the market, the rest is for is produced for subsistence.This sector profile will focus on foods and beverages which include: Plantains(Banana), Maize, cassava, rice, finger millet, sorghum, wheat, sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes and sugar and coffee, tea, soft drinks, and alcoholic beverages.
 
 

2.7.2. Plantains

Plantains and Bananas are one of the staple food in Uganda. Uganda has the largest germplasm in the world and yet the resource is not fully exploited. The Government of Uganda commissioned a project which characterised the 200 cultivars and controlled the banana weevils biologically and improved the cropping systems. All this is aimed at the improvement of productivity of banana strands. There is a steady increase in both the hactarage and production of bananas since 1992 to-date.
 
 

2.7.3. Maize

Maize is one of the major food crop grown in Uganda, especially around lake Victoria where it grown on large scale as a cash crop. As a result of the GOU initiatives to provide farm inputs, improved seeds and equipment, production has increased since 1992 to 1997 with an insignificant decrease in 1996/97. Efforts are made to export maize to Preferential Trade Areas (PTA). Maize has a potential for industrial production of corn starch and for the brewing industry.
 
 

Table. 5. Potential Markets for Ugandan Maize exports (metric tons)

Destination Potential Market

WFP 70,000 - 100,000

Kenya 500,000 - 1,000,000

EAC 1,000,000 - 1,500,000

IGADD 1,500,000 - 3,000,000

COMESA Above 3,000,000

Source: Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, 1996
 
 

Table.6. Area(HA) planted with food crop during the period 1992/97
 
Food crop
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
Bananas
1,459,000
1,488,000
1,499,999
1,512,000
1,524,000
1,538,000
Finger millet
395,999
404,001
412,001
395,000
400,000
395,000
Maize
438,202
503,001
563,002
571,000
584,000
598,000
Sorghum
250,000
254,999
260,002
266,000
271,000
276,000
Rice
50,002
53,001
55,001
55,227
58,000
60,000
wheat
5,000
5,000
5,000
5,000
5,000
5,000
Sweet potato
442,000
460,000
473,000
494,000
516,000
529,000
Iris potato
37,000
39,998
44,000
50,000
53,000
56,000
Cassava
362,000
368,872
320,166
332,000
335,000
342,000

Source: Statistics Dept , MAAIF,1997
 
 

Table. 7. Production of food crops (Tonnes) during the period 1992-1997
 
Food crop
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
Bananas
7,806,001
8,221,999
8,500,000
9,012,000
9,144,000
9,303,000
Finger millet
63,400
610,000
610,000
623,000
440,000
502,000
Maize
656,999
803,998
850,000
913,000
759,000
740,000
Sorghum
375,001
383,001
389,998
399,000
298,000
294,000
Rice
68,000
73,999
77,000
77,416
82,000
80,000
wheat
9,000
9,000
9,000
9,000
9,000
9,000
Sweet potato
1,904,999
1,958,000
2,129,001
2,223,000
1,548,000
1,894,000
Iris potato
268,001
320,000
368,002
402,000
318,000
360,000
Cassava
2,895,999
3,138,996
2,079,996
2,224,000
2,245,000
2,291,000

Source: Statistics Dept , MAAIF
 
 

2.7.4. Finger millet

Finger millet cultivation is widely spread throughout the country. It is mainly grown in the Northern and Eastern Uganda. The cultivation of finger millet has fairly remained constant since 1989, although production decreases slightly in year 1996/97. The hectarage of millet has increased since 1989-1994 with a slight decrease in 1996/97. This crop is grown for both food and brewing local beer. Its regarded as the most important cereal crop of the country.
 
 

2.7.5. Sorghum

Sorghum is grown throughout the country especially in semi-arid parts of the country such as Karamoja, Soroti, Kabale and Mbarara. There has been a significant change in area and production from 1992 to 1997. A slight decrease on production output was observed in year 1996/97. Sorghum has a great potential market in countries like Sudan, Somalia and Kenya. Export revenue from sorghum increased from US 70,000 in 1990 to 420,000 in 1993.
 
 

2.7.6. Rice.

Rice is basically grown as a cash crop in the swamps around Lake Kyoga. Currently rice is grown in two areas: Kibimba rice company, the Doho rice scheme and Olweny rice irrigation Project. The Olweny irrigation project implemented by GOU with an 800 hectares. Total rice production has increased from 68,000 tons in 1992 to 80,000 tons in 1996/1997. The total rice growing area has increased 17.6% between 1992 to 1997.
 
 

2.7.8. Iris potatoes

These are grown in the cool climate of the highland regions (1800M) found mainly in Mbale and Kabale districts. There is increased hectarage and production since 1989 with highest production of 420,000 Mt in 1995.
 
 

2.7.9. Sweet potatoes

Sweet potatoes are grown throughout the country, the crop is drought resistant with good performance in areas with 750 mm of rain fall and above. During the 1992-1997 period, the crop has registered a steady increase in area planted with resulting increase in the production up to 1995. Slight decrease was noted in 1996/97
 
 

2.7.10. Wheat

The crop is mainly grown in the temperate areas of Uganda with altitude above 1500m such as those along slopes of Mount Elgon, Western highlands of Fort-portal the Rwenzori and parts of Kabale, Mbarara and Bundibugyo. Wheat production in Uganda is still low and has remained at 9,000 Mt since 1992, but with prospect to increase if the land planted with wheat is also increased. The area planted with wheat has increased from 4000 ha in 1993 to 5000 to-date Field trials have been undertaken and wheat varieties that will produce higher yields and well suited to Ugandan climate have been identified..
 
 

2.7.11. Grain milling.

Five cereals are being milled in Uganda that’s wheat, maize, rice, finger millet and sorghum. There are 130 established maize mills of which the greatest number are small ones. Rice, sorghum and finger millet are milled on small scale but there is only one large rice mill. Uganda grain milling Co. Ltd. undertakes the milling of wheat with installed capacity of 60,000 Mt. per year. The installed capacity is not attained, about 22,000 Mt. of wheat is milled resulting into 14,000 Mt. of wheat flour. The demand for wheat flour is estimated to increase.Maize flour exports have been on an increase since 1990 when the exports was about US$ 60,000 and 1993 when the exports was 336,000 US dollars.
 
 

2.7.12. SUGAR

Sugar is produced in Uganda by three major companies:

. Kinyara Sugar Works Limited, the company is owned by the GOU and is the proprietor of sugar cane estates of some 13,050 hectares and of sugar factory with rated capacity of 1,500 tons of sugar per day. The total area under sugar cane is approximately half way towards the target of 10,000 hectares of developed land. Kinyara has at least 9,383 ha of land suitable for estate sugar. An area of 1600 hectares under sugar cane is owned by the out-growers. The factory started production in 1996 producing 2400 tons per month. The rehabilitation of the plant was carried out which involved modernising and repairing of existing agricultural inputs, rehabilitation of existing housing and buildings: and the construction of new buildings and services to provide housing and amenities for staff and labour.
 
 

The companies manufacture sugar from sugar cane under the integrated farm / factory ownership and at least more than 20,000 hectares of cultivable land is under sugar cane.

The by products of the sugar manufacture are the badges and molasses.Bagasse is usually burnt as a fuel in the factory. Molasses are converted to alcohol and confectionery. Alcohol is supplied to International Distillers to produce spirits
 
 

At present the sugar produced is for the domestic market. No export of sugar is carried out by all companies.. Uganda has a sugar quota of 5000 Mt per year under existing ACP/EU agreement, which it has not utilised for several years
 
 

2.7.13. Coffee Sub sector

The coffee industry In Uganda Coffee is the largest single foreign exchange earner of Uganda since 1970’s. The coffee industry is based entirely on small scale production. Robusta accounts for 94 % of the out put and Arabica 6% of the output. The Robusta is traditionally dry processed with a reputation for above average quality. The small Arabica output is medium quality "washed mild" based on farm level processing and usually classified as under " Colombian milds".
 
 

2.7.14. Coffee output

Production has been characterised for the past 15 years by low yields and declining quality for both Robusta and Arabica. Out put reached a peak in 1972 fell sharply in the late 70’s and early 1980’s and still has not regained the former high levels. The current production of coffee both for Robusta and Arabica is estimated at about 5.05 million bags, giving exportable volume of 3.5 million bags
 
 

The area planted with coffee is estimated to be around 273,000 ha including 33,000 ha for Arabica. The GOU has embarked on it own research in an effort to improve the coffee output.

Table.8. Summary of performance for the 1st Quarter of 1997/98 Coffee Season
 
Budget Parameters TARGETS( 60 Kg Bags) ACTUAL( 60 Kg Bags VARIANCE(%)
Procurement Total 1,200,000 621,109 -48.2
ExportersClosing Stocks 300,000 219,681 -26.7
Shipments to Coast 1,210,000 551,580 -54.4
Value of Exports US $101.7 Mil US$ 49.8 Mil -51

Source: Monitoring and Statistics ( UCDA) 1997
 
 

The table above illustrates targeted and actual performance for the first quarter of 1997/98 coffee season. It evident from the table that there was a significant decline in the procurements, shipments and the value of exports all in ranges above -48%. It is the closing stocks which registered a modest drop of -26 % below the projected figures or their produce. Exports increased 169 Mt in 1996. Given the current rehabilitation and development efforts through the Cocoa Development Project, cocoa production is expected to increase over 5000 Mt. in 1998. Projections for cocoa export have been placed at 15, 000 Mt by year 2002.
 
 

2.7.15. Investment opportunities in the food sub sector

2.7.16. Opportunities in Food marketing

(a) Provision of storage facilities

Markets with associated infrastructure of storage facilities and services matter a great deal. The private sector participants control the largest share of the food market in Uganda, but they continue to experience shortage of storage facilities and space. Most of them depend on renting of idle shops and few of them own stores. Moreover, most of these shops and stores are not suited to preserve the quality of the products. Only few of the big traders own cleaning and grading equipment and these are mainly in the large towns like Kampala and Jinja. Therefore investment opportunities do exist in the following:

2.7.17. INVESTMENT INCENTIVES

The GOU established the investment Authority in January 1991 at the same time as the enactment of investment code in order to create more attractive conditions for foreign investors.
 
 

2.7.18. CONCLUSION

Uganda being well endowed with natural resources together with conducive climate has the potential to produce a wide range of exportable products. Presently relative low quantities of foods produced are processed and exported. Basically production of food and beverages is for the domestic market. Production of the food crops and beverages is on the increase which indicated the export potential of the country. Crops like maize have a great potential for exportation not only to African countries but also to overseas countries.

Therefore the importance of the above mentioned investment opportunities should not be underestimated.The potential for food and beverages exports development is real. The Ugandan government has given a priority to the diversification of exports and encouragement of local value added intermediate and finished goods production and employment creation. The export sector as accorded priority by the GOU has been rightly identified as the pre-requisite for sustainable economic development.
 
 
 
 

References and other source of information

  1. Background to the budget 1997/98, Ministry of Planning and Economic Development, June 1997.
  2. Background to the budget 1990/91, Ministry of Planning and Economic Development, July 1990
  3. Background information paper on export diversification Plan 1992/93,1996/97-2002; Ministry of commerce, Co-operative and Marketing, March 27, 1992.
  4. Diagnostic study of East African Distillers Limited; Ministry of Industry and Technology, Aug. 1988.
  5. Proposal for the 1995/96 National budget and Economic policy; Uganda Manufacturers Association, April 1995.
  6. Final report for Lake Victoria Bottling Company Limited , October, 1990.
  7. Impact of foreign exchange rates on exports with focus on NTAEs, Export policy Unit, Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning; EPAU policy paper February. 1995.
  8. High Value Non-Traditional Agricultural Export, Data collection in Uganda; IDEA, May 20, 1997.
  9. Wheat and Barley Development, Feasibility Study, Final report, GOU; The Uganda Grain milling Co. Ltd.
  10. First quarterly Report: 1997/98, Coffee period(October/December) Vol. 28 Uganda Coffee Development Authority.
  11. Potential Industrial, Agro-processed products from Uganda; Dept of Industry, Ministry of Commerce and Co-operatives,. September, 1992
  12. Kinyara News, Issue No 1 December, 1996
  13. Uganda Tea Authority, 1997
14. Export Policy Analysis Unit, National Forum on Food Strategy, Ministry of Planning and Economic Development, May 2nd 1996
 
 

2.8. FRUIT AND VEGETABLE SECTOR
 
 

2.8.1. AN OVERVIEW OF THE SECTOR
 
 

Contribution to the national economy

Contribution of the sector to the national economy is significant although normally categorized with other food crops.
 
 

2.8.2. Modernization programme of Agriculture for the sector

GOU policies for the sector are:

- fruits: pineapple, passion fruit, avocado, apple banana.

- vegetables: okra, egg plants (aubergines), French beans, cow peas etc.

2.8.3. Resource availability

Land available for cultivation and pasture is about 18 million hectares, of which, 16,000 ha is under fruit cultivation and 29,000 ha under vegetable cultivation. This is much lower than that for other crops{2,277,184 ha} (Table 1). The total production of fruit and vegetables is 188,500 and 204,750 ton, respectively, with an average yield of 11,780 and 6,910 kg/ha, respectively higher than the yield from other crops {5,760 kg/ha} (Table1). This shows that with increased land coverage for fruit and vegetable cultivation, the production potential and subsequent yield of the fruit and vegetables will definitely be high.
 
 

Table.9. Production area and yield of Fruits and Vegetable

Crop Total cultivated

area (ha)

Total production

(ton)

Average yield

(kg/ha)

Other crops 2,277,184 13,114,495 5,760
Fruits 16,000 188,500 11,780
Vegetables 29,000 204,750 6,910

Source: NARO, 1995
 
 

Researchers from Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), namely plant breeders and agronomists are available to advice farmers and monitor the performance of improved and new varieties of fruits and vegetables.
 
2.8.4. Sector products


SECTOR PERFORMANCE
 
 

2.8.5. Fruit subsector
 
 

Pineapple

Production area for pineapple production is 6,000 ha with a total yield of 150,000 ton (Table 10). Local demand for pinepples is high, big sized fruits preferred to the small ones that are popular for export.
 
 

Table.10. Production area and yield of major fruits (1994/95)
 
Fruit crop  Area (ha) Yield (ton)
Pineapple  6,000 150,000
Passion fruit 1,120 7,840
Citrus 2,000 24,000
Pawpaw 2,100 21,000
Avocado 2,200 22,000
Mango 3,900 39,000
Banana* 120,000 1,200,000

Source: MAAIF; * bananas include plantain (matooke) and dessert bananas
 
 

Passion fruit

Production area for passion fruit is 1,120 ha with a total yield 7840 ton (Table 10). The demand for passion fruit both on the local and foreign markets is high. On the local market the small purple fruit and big purple passion fruit Kawanda hybrid are more popular than the yellow passion fruit. Europe is the major importer of passion fruit. Passion fruit quality trials were completed by Uganda Horticultural Exporters Association (HORTEXA) and a bulletin prepared for circulation had a positive impact on exports.
 
 

Citrus fruit

Production area for citrus fruit is 2,000 ha with a total yield 24,000 ton (Table 10). The demand for citrus fruit both on the local and foreign markets is also high.
 
 

Pawpaw

Production area is 2,100 ha with a total 21,000 ton (Table 10). Local demand for pawpaw is likewise high, big sized fruit being preferred to the small ones that are popular for export.A significant proportion of papaya fruits are produced for papain extraction.Major papain exporters are RECO Industries and Victoria Biotechnolgy Ltd. Europe is the main market for papain and demand is projected to increase. RECO Industries has successfully selected high yielding papaya fruit varieties for papain extracts. Major fruit firms dealing in papaya production and export are Interfruit, Suntrade Consultants, Uganda Organic Growers and Fruits of the Nile. RECO Industries successfully selected high yielding pawpaw varieties for papain extracts.
 
 

Mango

Production area for mangoes is 3,900 ha with a total yield of 39,000 ton (Table 10). Local demand for mangoes is high.
 

Avocado

Production area for avocado is 2,200 ha with a total yield of 22,000 ton (Table 10). Local demand for avocado is high with a number varities on the local market.
 

Bananas

Prouction area for banana production is 120,000 ha with a total yield of 1,200,000 ton (Table 2). Banana produce includes plantain (matooke), the cooking variety banana, and dessert bananas. Local demand for plantian and dessert bananas is high.
 
 

2.9.Vegetable subsector
 
 

Beans

Beans are the major vegetable crop with the highest production area and yield (Table 11). There is a high local and regional demand for beans (Table 11). Mairye Estastes deals in production and export of fine beans. Europe is the potential market for fine beans.
 
 

Pigeon, cow and field peas

Production area for the peas is also siginificant with pigeon, cow and field peas being crops (Table 11). Local and foreign demand for peas is high. Kane Agriculture specialises in production of peas (Table 11).
 
 

Onions

Production area for the onions is likewise siginificant (Table 11). Local and foreign demand for onions is also high.
 
 

2.9.1. Processed Vegetables

There is hardly any firm processing vegetable products. Currently Frigocan processes canned fine beans. Again major constraint being high capital costs. Expansion for the vegetable is avialble in solar drying of vegetables.
 

Table .11. Production area and yield of major vegetable export (1992 - 1997)
 
Vegetable crop Year Area (ha) Total (kg / ha)
1. Beans
1992
536,001
401,998
 
1993
552,002
428,001
 
1994
574,000
378,000
 
1995
600,000
390,000
 
1996
615,000
234,000
 
1997
630,000
221,000
2. Pigeon peas
1992
61,998
50,999
 
1993
64,001
53,001
 
1994
67,000
55,000
 
1995
70,000
58,000
 
1996
71,000
58,000
 
1997
72,000
59,000
3. Cow peas
1992
49,000
40,684
 
1993
51,000
43,000
 
1994
53,000
45,000
 
1995
54,000
44,637
 
1996
56,000
47,000
 
1997
58,000
46,000
4. Field peas
1992
26,000
14,911
 
1993
27,001
15,999
 
1994
28,002
17,000
 
1995
28,000
16,000
 
1996
29,000
16,614
 
1997
30,000
20,000
5. Onions
1992
14,870
64,267
 
1993
17,843
73,035
 
1994
19,627
78,991
 
1995
21,591
84,940
 
1996
23,754
90,890
 
1997
26,134
97,257

Source: MAAIF, 199
 
 

2.9.2. INVESTMENT INCENTIVES

A number of incentives are offered for potential investors viz.
 
 

2.10. FISH FARMING (AQUACULTURE) SECTOR

Fish farming stated in Uganda in 1953 by establishing Kajjansi Fisheries Experimental Station. The station was established to carry out research in aquaculture, train extension agents, farmers; produce and supply fish seeds for farmers.

Fish farmers were widely accepted and by 1968 the number of fishponds had reached 11,000 covering 410ha with estimated annual production of 800-900 tones. Unfortunately fish farming started declining from 1970s till mid 1980s due to political instability in the country. Number of operational ponds was less than 1,000 and estimated to produce about 30 tones of fish annually.
 

From early 1990s, there was renewed effort by the Government to revive fish farming.

Some fry centers were rehabilitated and extension delivery services improved.
 
 

2.10.1. RATIONALE FOR FISH FARMING

·To provide food with high quality protein;

·To ensure food security at farm level;

·As a source of income to the rural community;

·It provides employment opportunities to the rural communities;

·It can easily be integrated into the existing farming systems.
 

TABLE . 12. UGANDA: FISH PRODUCTION BY REGION, 1990-1997

(WT. in ‘000 tons;)
 
 

REGION

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
 
 

Victoria(wt) 119.2 118.03 129.7 134.9 103 103 106.4 106.06
 
 

Albert (wt) 19.48 20.93 21 21.8 16.4 16.4 21.9 19.12
 
 

Kioga (wt) 94.12 58.45 102.6 106.7 80.24 90.24 80.6 80.1
 
 

Edward (wt) 5.5 11.69 5.9 6.4 5.01 9.4 4.8 6.4

&

George
 
 

Albert (wt) 1.1 5.22 1.5 1.6 4.7 4.7 4.62 3.39

Nile

Others (wt) 3.97 0.58 4.2 4.6 3.63 3.6 3.67 3.66

Total (wt) 245.22 214.57 264.9 276 227.3 217.8 221.9 218.68

Source: FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
 

REFERENCES FOR FURTHER INFORMATION

Agribusiness Development Centre - Uganda’s Investment in Developing Export Agriculture, High Value Non-traditional Agricultural Export data collection in Uganda, May 20, 1997, Kampala
 
 

Agribusiness Development Centre - Uganda’s Investment in Developing Export Agriculture, Fifth Semi-Annual Progress Report, October 29, 1997, Kampala
 
 

Ministry of Finance & Economic Planning, Export Policy Analysis & Development Unit, Opportunities for Non-Traditional Agricultural Exports from Uganda. Vol. 2 - Vegetables, March 1993, Kampala.
 
 

Ministry of Finance & Economic Planning, Export Policy Analysis & Development Unit, Opportunities for Non-Traditional Agricultural Exports from Uganda. Vol. 6 - Fruit, July 1993, Kampala.
 
 

Ministry of Planning & Economic Development Agricultural Policy Committee, Operationalization of the Medium - Term Plan for Modernization of Agriculture, April 1997, Kampala.
 
 

National Agricultural Research Organization, GOU, Report on the Status of Horticultural Research, July 10, 1995
 
 

Uganda Investment Authority, The New Uganda: Trade and Investment Opportunities, 1997
 
 



  3.0. FOOD SECURITY IN UGANDA
 
3.1. Introduction

The food profile in Uganda is dominated by starchy staples. These staples together account for 30% of value added in agriculture. They provide a high per capita per day calorie intake which represent 60 of total calorie in take.
 
 

The Government is vigorously pursuing the policy of modernizing agriculture. For this to happen there must be a shift in emphasis from farming for subsistence to farming for profit.There is, therefore, an urgent need to modernise and intensify our farming through uptake by famers of high yielding ,disease and pest resistant crop planting material, using modern inputs such as fertilizers agricultural chemicals and mechanization to enhance labour productivity.Besides , the farmers consist
 
 

3.2. Food Security Problems in Uganda

Food security is baiscally defined as the access by all people in agiven location to adequate food both in quantity and quality at all times.Food insecurity on the other hand potraysthe lack of access to adequate food.
 
 

3.2.1. Factors that relate to food security include:

3.2.3. National Food Security Versus household food security

There is a growing concesus among most of the researchers, government policymakers and development wokers in Uganda that achieving national food security is an illusion without appropriately adddresing issues that affect the ability of household of different types (location, occupation, composition, resources) to meet their nutritional needs. In other words, no national food security without household food security.
 
 

3.2.4. Food Security Versus Food Self- Suffitiency

Considerable work has been done by the Export Policy Analysis U nit (EPAU) under the Ministry of Econnomic Planning to assses the balance between food availability and food consumpution at national, regional and district levels and make projections over the medium term of the food supply and demand situation (EPAU, 1995).They concluded that Uganda has an adequate supply of most food commodities with sizeable quantities. In normal years ,Uganda has surplus in most of the commodities with the exeption of livestock products and wheat.
 
 

3.2.5. Urban Versus rural food Security

According to the 1991 census, 89 % of the Ugandan population lives in the rural areas and 11% in urban areas. Bazaara (1995) critically examines the urban bais (food secure urbanities , starving rural people) view, which creat the impression that all urban people are food secure and all rural people were food insecure.This has led to a neglect of urban food inseculity which is definitely existing. Still one out of four children in urban areas is stunted(25. 3 %) although this is significantly lower than in rural areas (46.3 %) (CHDC?1994).Also the World Bank (1995) situates poverty mainly in the rural areas, ie. Eastern and Northern Uganda, since about 27 % of the rural population and only 11 % of the urban populatuinare in the lowest expenditure quartile. But this means that in absolute figures still about 200.000 urban people live in deep poverty and are probably very food insecure. Vitami A and Iodine deficiencies are common in certain areas. 16 % of newborns are underweight with birth weight of less than 2.5 kg (CHDC, 1994)
 
 

3.2.6. The relationship between Food Security and HIV/AIDS

AIDS in Uganda was first described in rural Rakai District in 1982.At a time when other countries werestill denying the existence of the problem , Uganda was the first developing country topublicly recognise the AIDS epidemic and defined a national policy.Uganda has one of the highest rates of AIDS cases per population in Africa and world and HIV/AIDS is now the leading cause of death in adults in Uganda. (CHDC,1994).
 

Although the impact of HIV/AIDS on agricultural production is not yet fully understood , studies in a number of selected districts in Uganda show that AIDS follows a different pattern in each village and district. Geographic and ethinic factors , agro-ecological conditions , religion , gender , age and marriage customs all play a role iin the pattern and impact of HIV/AIDS and in people s perception of the disease. (Hemrich G. , 1994) .

The primary impact of HIV/AIDS on agricultural production systems is loss of labour and labour shortage as a result of illness death. Some of the effects of labour shortage on agricultural production in abadly hit community were reduction in acreage of land under cultivation , delays in farming operations such as tillage , planting and weeding , reduction in abilty to control pests , decline in crop yields , shift from labour-intensive crops (eg banana) to less labour intensive crops ( such as cassava and sweetpotato ),shift from cash oriented production to subsistence production , reduction in the range of crops per house hold , decline in livestock production and loss of agricultural knowledge and management skills.

The resulting decline in agricultural production and the loss of household income adverselyaffects other household functions such as provision of education and health.And finally , it leads to increased povertyand increased food insecurity and malnutrition.

Fig.4.The following diagram illustrates the causal relationships.
 
 

HIV/AIDS Morbidity & Mortality

Other

factors

Labour shortage
 
 
 
 

Poor crop and

livestock management Fewer non-agricultural activities
 
 
 
 

Low yields and

production Reduced income

Reduced

capacity to care

for dependants

INCREASED FOOD INCREASED POVERTY

INSECURITY AND

MALNUTRITION
 
 

3.2.7. Poverty and food insecurity

Poverty has many dimensions : it can not be confined yo the economic sphere alone , but encompases cultural , social political and institutional issues. For most of the respondents in a poverty research, recently conducted in seven districts in Uganda(CDRN ,1995) , poverty is defined as an exclusion from the goods, services, rights and activities which constitute the basis of citizenship.There are many ties between material poverty and poor health and wellbeing. Low levers income are reflected in diet , result in undernutrition and malnutrition; similarly ill health and low levels of education are related to lack of spending either by individuals or government (CHDC, 1994).Based on the economic definition of poverty as a fundamental household purchasing power , recent national data from the Ugandan households survey19993-1994 indicate that more than half of Ugandan household(55%) are poor , which means that they live below the poverty line (World Bank , 1995).Also accordind World Bank (1995) , there are substantial numbers of people who are marginally above the poverty line , and who have to be considered in many senses to be poor.The result of the Uganda National I ntergrated Household Surey 1992-1993 indicate that Ugandan households with a total monthly expenditure not exeding Ush 100,000/= (85.6 % of households) spent on avreage 68% of this on expenditure on food , drinks and tobacco. This is even higher for rural households (69%) than urban households (61%).
 
 

3.2.8. Food, nutrition and Health

Where shortage of food prevails, food insecurity can lead serious environmental degradation. Table 13. Shows how Uganda faired in food production than the rest of sub-saharan Africa in, the last decade. Table 14. Shows indices for agricultural production, food production and per capita food production for Uganda over the period 1980 - 1992. Other than Karamoja region and areas experiencing civil unrest, Uganda has been endowed with a variety of food combinations.
 

Earlier studies, however, show that as a result of lower growth rate in food production, the per capita availability of food declined from 1060 grams per day in 1968 - 1969to 580 grams per day in 1985 - 86, a fall of 46%. The availability of cereals declined from 389 to 154gm per day during the 1986 - 1990 period. On ther hand, the per capita availability of starchy foods increased gradually from 501 gm/day in 1965 - 1966 to 661 gm/ day in 1975 - 1976 and then to 426 gm/day in 1985 - 1986.
 

Table.13.Showing the Trends in agricultural production in Uganda compared to the rest of Africa, 1982-1994
 
Totals and Per Capita Uganda Africa 
Index of agricultural production
 
 

(1979 - 1981 = 100)
 
 

Total : 1982 -84 

‘1992- 94

Per capita: 1982-84 
 
 

‘1992-94


 
 
 
 
 
 

116

154

106
 
 

101

102

135

94
 
 

94

 

Index of food production
 
 

(1979 - 81= 100)

Total: 1982 - 84

1992 - 94

Per capita: 1982- 84 


 
 
 
 
 
 

115

155

106


 
 
 
 
 
 

102

138

94
 
 

 

Average production of cereals

(‘000 metric tonnes)

‘ 1992 - 94

% change since 1982 - 84

 


 
 

1887

65


 
 

94708

41

 

Average yield of cereals

kg/hectare 1992 - 94

% change since 1982 - 84

1549

17

1160

10

Average yield of roots and tubers 

kg/hectare 1992 - 94

% change since 1982 - 84

6289

2

7607

17

Crop land

-Total hectare, 1983

- Hectares per capita, 1983

- Total hectares, 1993

- Hectares per capita, 1993

6300

0.44

6.77

0.34

177907

0.34

187887

0.27

Source: World resources (1996-1997) : Aguide to The Global Environment.

Table 14. Agricultural and Food Production per Capita idex for Uganda (average 1986-1988= 100).
 
Year Agricultural Production Index Food Production 

Index

Food

Production per

Capital Index

1980 82 81 99
1984 95 94 103
1985 96 96 102
1986 95 95 96
1987 100 100 100
1988 105 105 102
1989 114 113 106
1990 116 118 102
1991 120 121 106
1992 124 124 106

Source: World Bank (1995): Africa Development indicators, 1994- 1995.
 
 

Although it appears that Uganda is self sufficient in ffood , the country does experience considerable nutrient deficiencies. For instance, while cereals and high energy protein foods (millet sorghum and maize) constituted 44% of the total food supplies in 1960s, the share dropped to 27% by 1990. On the other hand the share of starchy foods went from 56% to 73% over the same period : plantains 30 - 35%, cassava 18 - 26%. Although malnutrition in Uganda is considerably moderate, there is perhaps need to increase production of cereals, pulses and oil seeds rather than promoting the production of low calorie starchy foods.Districts with permanent food deficits include Kotido, Moroto, Moyo, Bundibugyo, Kabale and Luweero.
 
 

Some of the measures being implemented, planned or considered feasible for reducing

food insecurity in Uganda include the following:

to ensure increased production; and offering land users incentives to promote agro forestry, aquaculture, crop - livistock, soil and water conservation as a sustainable practice. varieties, has developed draught resistant varieties and is developing and.

evaluating better varieties for high land and mid land ecologies.

to linkage between population and health. National Early Warming and Food Information System (NEWFIS). However

the system requires development and improvement to sever the purpose it was

inteded for.

3.2.9. Malnutrition

Malnutrition si the most pervasive cause of ill health and a major contributor tothe high rate among infants and young children. About 2% of the death in children under five years of age are due to nutritionally related cause. The most common malnutrition diseases among the under - fives in Uganda are Kwashiorkor, marasmus, stunted growth, and under weight . According to UGHS 1988- 1989, 45% of the children suffered from stunting. Among sub- saharan African countries sampled by the DHS, the level of stunting in Uganda’s children is second only to Burundi. Almost twice as many children in rural areas are stunted (46.3%) as children in urban areas (25.3%).
 
 

3.2.10. Recommendations

for food security need for the household, the farm families should produce as much as

possible for selling.

internationally competitive basis, using the principle of comperative advantage.

House hold income is the most important factor in food security.


 
 

REFERENCES FOR FURTHER INFORMATION

Bazaara N., Stractural Adjustment Programs: The Liberaluzation of Food Markets And Social change in Uganda, Centre for Basic Research, 1994.

Bazaara N., Rethinking Food Security in Uganda, Centre for Basic Research, 1994.

Bazaara N., some reflections on perspectives on the Problem of Food Security in Uganda, Centre for Basic Research , Discussion paper for workshop on "Support to Food Security Initiatives in Uganda", 1995.

Community Development Resource Network (CDRN), Porvety in Selected Districtsof Uganda: a Summary (pre-final document), 1995.

Child Health and Development Centre (CHDC), Equity and Vulnerability: a Situation Analysis of Women, Adolescents and Children in Uganda, 1994, Uganda National Council for Children, 1994.

ExportPolicy Analysis Unit (EPAU), Food Security and Exports Techinical Report, Ministry of Finace and Economic Planning, 1995.

Government of Uganda, Uganda Food and Nutrition Policy (draft), 1994.

Hemrich G., The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Agriculture Systems and Rural Livelihoods in Uganda, FAO? 1994.